Advertisement

Microphysical Properties of Mesospheric Aerosols: An Overview of In Situ-Results from the ECOMA Project

  • Markus RappEmail author
  • Irina Strelnikova
  • Boris Strelnikov
  • Martin Friedrich
  • Jörg Gumbel
  • Ulf-Peter Hoppe
  • Tom Blix
  • Ove Havnes
  • Phillip Bracikowski
  • K.A. Lynch
  • Scott Knappmiller
Chapter
Part of the IAGA Special Sopron Book Series book series (IAGA, volume 2)

Abstract

Six sounding rockets were launched within the ECOMA (=“Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere”) project to study the characteristics of meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) and mesospheric ice particles, as well as their possible microphysical relation. The launches were conducted during three campaigns from the Andøya Rocket Range (69°N, 16°E), one in September 2006, and the other two in the summers of 2007 and 2008. This chapter provides an overview of these observations and presents the corresponding geophysical results with special emphasis on our understanding of the micropyhsics of mesospheric ice particles. Most notably, we are able to confirm the existence of MSPs at all altitudes between 60 and 85 km in September, and a seasonal variation that is consistent with previous model studies in which MSP-variability is mainly driven by the global circulation. Together with these model studies as well as recent satellite observations of MSPs our results hence cast some doubt on a standard assumption of state-of-the-art microphysical models of mesospheric ice clouds, namely that ice nucleation mainly occurs heterogeneously on MSPs.

Keywords

Direct Monte Carlo Simulation Polar Summer Collector Plate Altitude Profile Particle Charge Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) under grants 50 OE 0301 and 50 OE 0801 (Project ECOMA). The Norwegian part of the project was supported by the Norwegian Space Centre and the Research Council of Norway (grant 177295).

References

  1. Brattli A, Lie-Svendsen O, Svenes K, Hoppe U-P, Strelnikova I, Rapp M, Latteck R, Friedrich M (2009) The ECOMA 2007 campaign: rocket observations and numerical modellingof aerosol particle charging and plasma depletion in a PMSE/NLC layer. Ann Geophys 27(2):781–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. DeLand MT, Shettle EP, Thomas GE, Olivero JJ (2007) Latitude-dependent long-termvariations in polar mesospheric clouds from SBUV version 3 PMC data. J .Geophys Res 112:D10315. http://doi:10.1029/2006JD007857 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Friedrich M, Torkar KM, Singer W, Strelnikova I, Rapp M, Robertson S (2009) Signaturesof mesospheric particles in ionospheric data. Ann Geophys 27(2):823–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Giebeler J, Lübken F-J, M. Nägele (1993) CONE – a new sensor for in-situ observations ofneutral and plasma density fluctuations. Proceedings of the 11th ESA symposium on Europeanrocket and balloon programmes and related research, Montreux, Switzerland (ESA SP), pp 311–318Google Scholar
  5. Gumbel J, Waldemarsson T, Giovane F, Khaplanov M, Hedin J, Karlsson B, Lossow S, Megner L, Stegman J, Fricke KH, Blum U, Voelger P, Kirkwood S, Dalin P, Sternovsky Z, Robertson S, Horányi M, Stroud R, Siskind DE, Meier RR, Blum J, Summers M, Plane JMC, Mitchell NJ, Rapp M (2005) The MAGIC rocket campaign: an overview. Proceedings of the 17th ESA symposium on European rocket and balloon programmes and related research, Sandefjord, Norway (ESA SP–590), pp 139–144Google Scholar
  6. Havnes O, Næsheim LI (2007) On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesosphericdust particles impacting on rocket probes. Ann Geophys 25:623–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Havnes O, Trøim J, Blix T, Mortensen W, Næsheim LI, Thrane E, Tønnesen T (1996) Firstdetection of charged dust particles in the Earth’s mesosphere. J Geophys Res 101:10839–10847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hervig ME, Gordley LL, Deaver LE, Siskind DE, Stevens MH, Russell JM III, Bailey SM, Megner L, Bardeen CG (2009) First satellite observations of meteoric smoke in theupper atmosphere. Geophys Res Lett 36:L18805. doi:10.1029/2009GL039737Google Scholar
  9. Hunten DM, Turco RP, Toon OB (1980) Smoke and dust particles of meteoric origin in themesosphere and stratosphere. J Atmos Sci 37:1342–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Knappmiller S, Robertson S, Sternovsky Z, Friedrich M (2008) A rocket-borne mass analyzerfor charged aerosols in the mesosphere. Rev Sci Instrum 79:104502Google Scholar
  11. Latteck R, Singer W, Bardey H (1999) The ALWIN MST radar: technical design and performance. Proceedings of the 14th ESA symposium on European rocket and balloon programmesand related research, Potsdam, Germany (ESA SP–437), pp 179–184Google Scholar
  12. Lübken F-J, Berger U, Baumgarten G (2009) Stratospheric and solar cycle effects on longtermvariability of mesospheric ice clouds. J Geophys Res 114:D00I06. doi:10.1029/2009JD012377Google Scholar
  13. Lübken F-J, Lautenbach J, Höffner J, Rapp M, Zecha M (2009) First continuous temperaturemeasurements within polar mesosphere summer echoes. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys 71:453–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lynch KA, Gelinas LJ, Kelley MC, Collins RL, Widholm M, Rau D, MacDonald E, Liu Y, Ulwick J, Mace P (2005) Multiple sounding rocket observations of charged dust in thepolar winter mesosphere. J Geophys Res 110:A03302. http://doi:10.1029/2004JA010502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marsh D, Merkel A (2009) 30-year PMC variability modeled by WACCM. Eos Trans AGU Spring Meet Suppl, pages Abstract SA33B–08Google Scholar
  16. Megner L, Gumbel J (2009) Charged meteoritic particles as ice nuclei in the mesosphere: part 2 – a feasibility study. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys 71:1236–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Megner L, Gumbel J, Rapp M, Siskind D (2008) Reduced meteoric smoke particle densityat the summer pole implications for mesospheric ice particle nucleation. Adv Space Res 41:41–49Google Scholar
  18. Megner L, Khaplanov M, Baumgarten G, Gumbel J, Stegman J, Strelnikov B, Robertson S (2009) Large mesospheric ice particles at exceptionally high altitudes. Ann Geophys 27(3):943–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Murray BJ, Jensen EJ (2010) Homogeneous nucleation of amorphous solid water particles inthe upper mesosphere. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 72:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rapp M, Gumbel J, Lübken F-J, Latteck R (2002) D-region electron number density limitsfor the existence of polar mesosphere summer echoes. J Geophys Res 107(D14). http://doi:10.1029/2001JD001323
  21. Rapp M, Lübken F-J (2004) Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE): review of observationsand current understanding. Atmos Chem Phys 4:2601–2633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rapp M, Strelnikova I (2009) Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. particle detection by active photoionization. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 71:477–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rapp M, Strelnikova I, Strelnikov B, Hoffmann P, Friedrich M, Gumbel J, Megner L, Hoppe U-P, Robertson S, Knappmiller S, Wolff M, Marsh DR (2010) Rocket-borne in-situmeasurements of meteor smoke: charging properties and implications for seasonal variation. J Geophys Res 115:D00I16. doi:10.1029/2009JD012725Google Scholar
  24. Rapp M, Strelnikova I, Strelnikov B, Latteck R, Baumgarten G, Li Q, Megner L, Gumbel J, Friedrich M, Hoppe U-P, Robertson S (2009) First in situ measurement of the verticaldistribution of ice volume in a mesospheric ice cloud during the ecoma/mass rocket-campaign. Ann Geophys 27(2):755–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rapp M, Thomas GE (2006) Modeling the microphysics of mesospheric ice particles: assessmentof current capabilities and basic sensitivities. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys 68:715–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shettle EP, DeLand MT, Thomas GE, Olivero JJ (2009) Long term variations in thefrequency of polar mesospheric clouds in the northern hemisphere from SBUV. Geophys Res Lett 36:L02803. http://doi:10.1029/2008GL036048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Strelnikova I, Rapp M, Strelnikov B, Baumgarten G, Brattli A, Svenes K, Hoppe U-P, Friedrich M, Gumbel J, B. Williams P (2009) Measurements of meteor smoke particles duringthe ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. J Atmos Solar-Terr Phys 71:486–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Thomas GE (1991) Mesopheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region. Rev Geophys 29:553–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thomas GE, Olivero JJ, Jensen EJ, Schröder W, Toon OB (1989) Relation betweenincreasing methane and the presence of ice clouds at the mesopause. Nature 338:490–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vondrak T, Plane JMC, Meech SR (2006) Influence of submonolayer adsorption on thephotoemission of the Cu(111)/water ice surface. 125:224702Google Scholar
  31. Wood DM (1981) Classical size dependence of the work function of small metallic spheres. PhysRev Lett 46:749CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Rapp
    • 1
    Email author
  • Irina Strelnikova
    • 2
  • Boris Strelnikov
    • 2
  • Martin Friedrich
    • 3
  • Jörg Gumbel
    • 4
  • Ulf-Peter Hoppe
    • 5
  • Tom Blix
    • 5
  • Ove Havnes
    • 6
  • Phillip Bracikowski
    • 7
  • K.A. Lynch
    • 7
  • Scott Knappmiller
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Radars and Sounding RocketsLeibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Rostock UniversityKuehlungsbornGermany
  2. 2.Department of Radars and Sounding RocketsLeibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Rostock UniversityKuehlungsbornGermany
  3. 3.Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  4. 4.Stockholm UniversityStockholmSwedon
  5. 5.Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)KjellerNorway
  6. 6.University of TromsoTromsoNorway
  7. 7.Dartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  8. 8.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations