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Labour-market flexibility raises new fundamental questions about the interdependence between work, careers, learning and identity. The restructuring of work, and uncertainties over prospects of obtaining work in the field for which individuals have trained, have increased the risk of transition discontinuities and shifting contexts of career development. For the individual, this means that developing a professional orientation and planning a progressive career become complex and difficult processes, particularly in contexts where organizational as well as occupational socialization are losing their former significance in providing a framework of reference and orientation. Today, employees are challenged to plan and organize their individualized careers away from long-term company attachment and prestructured career pathways.