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Quantitative Ultrasound Instrumentation for Bone In Vivo Characterization

  • Pascal LaugierEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Although it has been over 20 years since the first recorded use of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technology to predict bone strength, the field has not yet reached its maturity. Among several QUS technologies available to measure cortical or cancellous bone sites, at least some of them have demonstrated potential to predict fracture risk in a number of clinical circumstances, with an equivalent efficiency compared to X-ray densitometry techniques, with the advantages of being non-ionizing, inexpensive, portable, highly acceptable to patients and repeatable. In this chapter, we review instrumental developments that have led to in vivo applications of bone QUS. While several proposals have been made for practical clinical use, there are a number of critical issues that still need to be addressed, such as quality control and standardization. On the other side, although still at an early stage of development, recent QUS approaches to assess bone quality factors seem very promising. These include guided waves to assess mechanical and structural properties of long cortical bones or new QUS technologies adapted to measure the central skeleton (hip). New data acquisition and signal processing procedures are prone to reveal bone properties beyond bone mineral quantity and to provide a more accurate assessment of bone strength.

Keywords

Attenuation Axial transmission Bidirectional axial transmission Bone quality Bone strength BUA Calcaneus Circumferential waves Densitometry Diffraction Femur Forearm Fracture risk Heel Hip Phalanges Phase cancellation QUS imaging Radius SOS Tibia Transverse transmission Velocity dispersion 

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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Imagerie ParametriqueUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRSParisFrance

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