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Microscopic Elastic Properties

  • Kay RaumEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Several high frequency ultrasound techniques have been developed during the last decade with the intention to assess elastic properties of bone at the tissue level. In this chapter three major principles are described with exemplary measurements in the frequency range from 50MHz to 1.2GHz. The methods are compared and their application potentials and limitations are discussed with respect to the hierarchical structure of cortical bone. While highly focused transducers with frequencies between 50 and 200MHz are suitable for the assessment of microscale elastic properties, frequencies in the gigahertz range are dedicated to the investigation of the anisotropic lamellar bone structure. The relations between tissue mineralization, acoustic properties and anisotropic elastic coefficients at the micro- and nanoscales will be summarized.

Keywords

Acoustic impedance Acoustic lens Analogue-to-digital (A/D) Anisotropy Aperture Numerical aperture N.A. Attenuation Bandpass Beam axis Beam width Bone matrix Collagen Compressional wave Confocal Cortical bone C-scan Degree of mineralization of bone Depth of focus Elastic coefficient Elasticity Embedding Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) Femur Fibril Filter Focal plane Focal point Group velocity Haversian canal 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been conducted within the European Associated Laboratory “Ultrasound Based Assessment of Bone” (ULAB) and was supported by the Deutsche For-schungsgemeinschaft (grants Ra1380/1 and Ra1380/7).

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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Julius-Wolff Institute and Berlin-Brandenburg School for Regenerative TherapiesCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany

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