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Linear Acoustics of Trabecular Bone

  • Janne P. Karjalainen
  • Ossi Riekkinen
  • Juha Töyräs
  • Jukka S. JurvelinEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads

Abstract

During the two recent decades, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods have been developed for in vivo diagnostics of trabecular bone. Mostly, trabecular bone QUS measurements are conducted in through-transmission and pulse-echo geometry. Since the first in vivo QUS measurements at the heel, the research efforts have also been focused on enabling QUS measurements at important fracture sites, such as proximal femur or lumbar vertebra. This chapter introduces the experimental QUS methods and reviews the recent developments in in vitro and in vivo measurement methods and results on linear acoustic properties of trabecular bone. Specifically, ultrasound parameters determined in through-transmission and pulse-echo measurements are introduced and their frequency dependency as well as feasibility for characterization of bone density, structure, composition and mechanical properties is reviewed. Finally, potential of QUS for clinical diagnostics of osteoporosis and prediction of bone fracture risk are discussed, with some suggestions.

Keywords

AA AIB Apparent integrated backscatter Attenuation Attenuation compensation Average attenuation Backscatter Bone composition Bone marrow Bone mechanics Bone structure Broadband ultrasound attenuation Broadband ultrasound backscatter BUA BUB Cancellous bone Dual frequency ultrasound Frequency slope of apparent backscatter FSAB Integrated reflection coefficient IRC Linear acoustics nBUA Normalized broadband ultrasound attenuation Pulse-echo Reflection SOS Spectrum centroid shift Speed of sound Through-transmission Time slope of apparent backscatter Trabecular bone TSAB Ultrasound velocity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janne P. Karjalainen
    • 1
  • Ossi Riekkinen
    • 1
  • Juha Töyräs
    • 1
  • Jukka S. Jurvelin
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics and MathematicsUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland

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