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Bone Overview

  • David MittonEmail author
  • Christian Roux
  • Pascal Laugier
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter is intended for readers who do not have a background in bone biomechanics. It gives a description of bone, highlighting its complex and hierarchical structure, starting at the macroscopic scale from an entire bone, such as the femur, down to the nanoscopic scale and its basic components: the collagen fibers and the mineral crystals. Then, some definitions and concepts of biomechanics are given in relation to the hierarchical structure of bone. The goal is to define the main parameters that can be used to assess bone mechanical competence. Some mechanical features are accessible using the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technologies that are presented in subsequent chapters. Finally, the clinical context in which QUS has been developed is described. Diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis is a major public health problem in which QUS can play a role.

Keywords

Anisotropy Biomechanics Bone mineral density Bulk modulus Canaliculi Cancellousbone Collagen fibers Cortical bone Damage Densitometry Density Diagnosis Elasticcoefficient Elasticity Failure load Fatigue Fracture risk Haversiancanal Isotropy Lamellae Microarchitecture Microcracks Crystals Multi-scale Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Osteocytes Osteon Osteoporosis Poisson’s coefficient Porosity Rigidity Shear modulus Strain Strength Stress Toughness Trabeculae Viscoelasticity Young’s modulus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Catherine Verdu (INSA Lyon) who performed the scanning electron microscopy images.

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© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Lyon 1LyonFrance
  2. 2.INRETS, UMR_T9406, LBMCBron CedexFrance
  3. 3.Faculté de Médecine, Hopital CochinUniversité Paris-DescartesParisFrance
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Imagerie ParametriqueUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRSParisFrance

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