General Observations on the Ottoman Military Industry, 1774–1839: Problems of Organization and Standardization
This paper aims to analyze the gradual implementation of the Gribeauval system in the Ottoman artillery. From 1767 onwards, French General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval (1715–1789) succeeded in standardizing the caliber, carriages and the equipment of the artillery. The new technique of boring out the gun barrel from the solid yielded much closer tolerances in casting the metal, permitting greater range with less powder charges. The reduction of the powder load by half made possible to cast the barrel thinner and lighter, for it did not have to withstand a heavy powder charge anymore. As the risk of cracking and bursting barrels decreased, gunners doubled the rate of fire, paving the way for the Napoleonic battles. The parts of cannon were made durable, identical and hence interchangeable owing to the existence of industrial plants.