Reforestation, Conservation and Livelihoods

Part of the World Forests book series (WFSE, volume 8)


Conservationists tend to view deforestation largely in terms of its impact on biodiversity. But, because of deforestation, there is an equally compelling human tragedy unfolding as well. Many people used these forests in the past and are now trying to make a living in the degraded forests and lands that have replaced them. Their numbers are large and some estimates suggest there are 300 million people across the tropical world dependent on degraded or secondary forest for their livelihoods (ITTO 2002). Within Asia, Poffenberger (2006) has estimated there are 140 million ‘forest-dependent’ people (or 30% of the population) in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam alone. Some of these people live within the residual forests as shifting cultivators and hunter-gatherers. Others, such as farmers and artisans, live outside the forests but draw on them for various resources. When forests are degraded or lost it is the poorer people in these rural communities who are usually the most adversely affected. It is true that they themselves have sometimes contributed to the degradation process. But, as seen in Chapter 2, more often than not, degradation has been caused by the activities of the rich and more powerful members of society or by a lack of concern by governments about how forests and lands are managed.


Protected Area Natural Forest Biodiversity Conservation Land Tenure Solomon Island 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Adams WM, Aveling R, Brockington D, Dickson B, Elliott J, Hutton J, Roe D, Vira B, Wolmer W (2004) Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty. Science 306:1146–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angelsen A, Wunder S (2003) Exploring the forest-poverty link: key concepts, issues and research implications. Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  3. Appanah S, Weinland G (1993) Planting quality timber trees in Pensinsular Malaysia: a review. Forest reserch Institute, Malaysia, KepongGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkes F (2007) Community-based conservation in a globalised world. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:15188–15193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouvier H, Smith G (2006) Of spontaneity and conspiracy theories; explaning violence in Central Kalimantan. Asian J Soc Sci 34:475–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brockington D, Igoe J, Schmidt-Soltau K (2006) Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conserv Biol 20:250–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Byron RN (2001) Keys to smallholder forestry in developing countries in the tropics. In: Harrison SR, Herbohn JL (eds) Sustainable farm forestry in the tropics: social and economic analysis and policy. Edward Edgar, Cheltenham, pp 211–226Google Scholar
  8. Carle J (2007) Vunerabilities of smallholder plantings. Unasylva 58:59Google Scholar
  9. Carle J, Holmgren P (2003) Definitions related to planted forests. Working Paper 79. FAO, Forestry Department RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Castella JC, Boissau S, Nguyen HT, Novosad P (2002) Impact of forest land allocation on ­agriculture and natural resources management in Bac Kan Province, Vietnam. In: Castell JC, Dang DQ (eds) Doi Moi in the mountains land use changes and farmers livelihood strategies in Bac Kan Province, Vietnam. The Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, pp 121–148Google Scholar
  11. Chambers R, Leach M (1989) Trees as savings and security for the rural poor. World Develop 17:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chandler D, Roff WR, Small JRW, Steinberg DJ, Taylor RH, Woodside A, Wyatt DK (1987) In search of Southeast Asia: a modern history. University of Hawaii Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  13. Chokkalingam U, Carandang AP, Pulhin JM, Lasco RD, Peras RJJ, Toma T (2006) One century of forest rehabilitation in the Philippines: approaches, outcomes and lessons. Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  14. Clarke WC, Thaman R (1993) Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands: systems for sustainability. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, New York, ParisGoogle Scholar
  15. Cleary M, Eaton P (1996) Tradition and reform: land tenure and rural development in Southeast Asia. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Colchester M (1993) Pirates, squatters and poachers – the political ecology of dispossession of the native peoples of Sarawak. Global Ecol Biogeogr Lett 3:158–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colchester M (2000) Self-determination or environmental determinism for indigenous peoples in tropical forest conservation. Conserv Biol 14:1365–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cornista LB, Escueta EF (1990) Communal forest leases as a tenurial option in the Philippines uplands. In: Poffenberger M (ed) Keepers of the forest: land management alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian Press, Connecticut, pp 134–144Google Scholar
  19. Cossalter C, Pye-Smith C (2003) Fast wood. Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  20. Crocombe RG (1982) Land tenure and agricultural development in the Pacific Islands. In: Bay-Peterson J (ed) Land tenure and the small farmer in Asia. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, The Council for Agricultural Planning and Development, The Land Reform Training Institute, Taipai, pp 28–48Google Scholar
  21. Cyranoski D (2007) Biodiversity: logging: the new conservation. Nature 446:608–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dauvergne P (2001) Loggers and degradation in the Asia-Pacific: corporations and environmental management. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Dawkins HC, Philip MS (1998) Tropical moist forest silviculture and management: a history of success and failure. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  24. De Jong W (2002) Forest products and local forest management in West Kalimantan, Indonesia: implications for conservation and development. Tropenbos International, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  25. Del Lungo A, Ball J, Carle J (2006) Global planted forests thematic study. Results and analysis. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. DFID (1999) Key sheets for sustainable livelihoods – overview. In: Carney D (ed) Department for International Development, London.; accessed 22 September 2010
  27. Do DS, Nguyen HN (2003) Use of indigeneous tree species in reforestation in Vietnam. Agricultural Publishing House, HanoiGoogle Scholar
  28. Dove MR (1993) A revisionist view of tropical deforestation and development. Environ Conserv 20:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Eaton P (2005) Land tenure, conservation and development in Southeast Asia. Routledge Curzon, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Effendy A, Hardono D (2000) The large scale private investment of timber plantation development in Indonesia. Proceedings of the international conference on Timber plantation development. Forest Management Bureau of the Philippines Department of Environment and Natural Resources, International Tropical Timbers Organisation, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  31. Enters T, Durst P, Brown C (2003) What does it take? The role of incentives in forest plantation development in the Asia-Pacific region. Unasylva 54:11–18Google Scholar
  32. Erskine P, Lamb D, Bristow M (2005) Reforestation in the tropics and subtropics of Australia using rainforest tree species. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra,; accessed 19 September 2010Google Scholar
  33. Evans J, Turnbull JW (2004) Plantation forestry in the tropics; the role, silviculture and use of planted forests for industrial, social, environmental and agroforestry purposes. Oxford University press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. FAO (2002) Land tenure and rural development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO (2010) The global forest resource assessment 2010. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Filer C, Sekhran N (1998) Loggers, donors and resource owners: Papua New Guinea country study. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Fingleton J (2005) Privatising land in the Pacific: a defence of customary tenures. Discussion Paper No 80. The Australia Institute., CanberraGoogle Scholar
  38. Fisher RJ (2003) Innovations, persistence and change: reflections on the state of community forestry. Community Forestry: Current Innovations and Experiences Regional Community Forestry Training Center and Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  39. Fisher RJ, Maginnis S, Jackson W, Barrow E, Jeanrenaud S (2008) Linking conservation and poverty reduction: landscapes, people and power. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman JD (1955) Iban agriculture: a report on the shifting cultivation of hill rice by the Iban of Sarawak. H.M. Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Hafner J (1995) Beyond basic needs: participation and village reforestation in Thailand. Commun Develop J 30:72–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harrison S, Emtage N, Nasayao E (2004) Past and present forestry support programs in the Philippines, and lessons for the future. Small-scale Forest Econom Manage Policy 3:303–317Google Scholar
  43. Hobley M (1996) Participatory forestry: the process of change in India and Nepal. Overseas Development Institute, London.Google Scholar
  44. Hunt C (2002) Production, privatisation and preservation in Papua New Guinea forestry. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Hviding E, Bayliss-Smith T (2000). Islands of rainforest: agroforestry, logging and eco-tourism in Solomon Islands. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  46. ICEM (2003a) Thailand national report on protected areas and development. Review of protected areas and development in the lower Mekong River region. International Center for Environmental Management, Indooroopilly, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  47. ICEM (2003b) Vietnam national report on protected areas and development. Review of protected areas and development in the lower Mekong River region. International Center for Environmental Management., Indooroopilly, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  48. ITTO (2002) ITTO guidelines for the restoration, management and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests, vol No 13, ITTO Policy Development Series. International Tropical Timbers Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacoby EH (1961) Agrarian unrest in Southeast Asia. Asia Publishing House, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. Kaimowitz D, Sheil D (2007) Conserving what and for whom? Why conservation should help meet basic humid needs in the tropics. Biotropica 39:567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krishnapillay B (2002) A manual for forest plantation establishment in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute, Malaysia, KepongGoogle Scholar
  52. Kusters K, de Foresta H, Ekadinata A, van Noordwijk M (2007) Towards solutions for states vs. local community conflicts over forestland: the impact of formal recognition of user rights in Krui, Sumatra, Indonesia. Human Ecol 35:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li TM (2002) Engaging simplifications: community-based resource management, market processes and state agendas in upland Southeast Asia. World Develop 30:265–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lopez C, Shanley P (2004) Riches of the forest: foods, spices, crafts and resins of asia. Centre for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  55. Lynch OJ, Talbot K (1995) Balancing acts: community-based forest managment and national law in Asia and the Pacific. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  56. Mayers J (2000) Company-community forestry partnerships: a growing phenomenon. Unasylva 51:33–41Google Scholar
  57. Mayers J (2006) Poverty reduction through commercial forestry: what evidence? What prospects? The forest dialogue. Yale University, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  58. Mayers J, Vermeulen S (2002) Company-community forestry partnerships; from raw deals to mutual gains? International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. McGrath M (1998) Community-based forest conservation and management in the Pacific Islands. In: Victor M, Lang C, Bornemeier JE (eds) Community forestry at a crossroads: reflections and future development of community forestry. Regional Community Forestry Training Center, Bangkok, pp 59–70Google Scholar
  60. McShane TO, Wells MP (2004) Getting biodiversity projects to work. towards more effective conservation and development. Columbia University press, NewGoogle Scholar
  61. Mercer DE, Soussan J (1992) Fuelwood problems and solutions: policy options. In: Sharma N, Rowe R (eds) Managing the world’s forests: looking for balance between conservation and development. Kendall/Hunt Publishing, Falls Church, VA, pp 177–214Google Scholar
  62. Meyfroidt P, Lambin EF (2008) The causes of reforestation in Vietnam. Land Use Policy 25:182–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Michon G (2005) Domesticating forests: how farmers manage forest resources. Institut de Recherchepour le Developpement, Center for International Forestry Research, World Agroforestry Center, Paris, BogorGoogle Scholar
  64. Morris JD, Hicks E, Ingles A, Ketphanh S (2004) Linking poverty reduction with forest conservation. Case studies from Lao PDR. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  65. Nawir AA, Anyonge C, Race D, Vermeulen S (2003) Towards equitable partnerships between corporate and smallholder partners: relating partnerships to social, economic and environmental indicators: workshop synthesis. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  66. Nawir AA, Murniat, Rumboko L (2007) Forest rehabilitation in Indonesia: where to after three decades? Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  67. Nguyen VS, Gilmour DG (2000) Forest rehabilitation policy and practice in Vietnam. In: Anon (ed) Forest rehabilitation policy and practice in Vietnam: proceedings of a national workshop, Hoa Binh. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Hanoi, pp 4–34Google Scholar
  68. Peluso NL, Poffenberger M, Seymour F (1990) Reorienting forest management on Java. In: Poffenberger M (ed) Keepers of the forest: land management alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian, Connecticut, pp 220–236Google Scholar
  69. Penafiel SR (1996) Opportunities for income generation in the Baggio community forestry ­project. In: Victor M (ed) Income generation through community forestry. Regional Community Forestry Training Center, Bangkok, pp 150–156Google Scholar
  70. Poffenberger M (1990) Keepers of the forest: land management alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  71. Poffenberger M (2006) People in the forest: community forestry experiences from Southeast Asia. Int J Environ Sustain Develop 5:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pragtong K, Thomas D (1990) Evolving management systems in Thailand. In: Poffenberger M (ed) Keepers of the forest: land management alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian, Connecticut, pp 167–186Google Scholar
  73. Raymond DH, Wooff WG (2006) Small-scale forest plantations are the key to the future of the Solomon Islands forest industry. Int Forest Rev 8:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. RECOFTC and FAO (2003) Community forestry: current innovations and experiences. Regional Community Forestry Training Centre and Food and agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  75. Rigg J (2006) Land, farming, livelihoods, and poverty: rethinking the links in the rural south. World Develop 34:180–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sanchez PA (1995) Science in agroforestry. Agroforest Syst 30:5–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sasaki A, Takeda S, Kanzaki M, Ohta S, Preechapanya P (2007) Population dynamics and land use changes in a Miang (chewing tea) village in northern Thailand. Tropics 16:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sato J (2000) People in between: conversion and conservation of forest lands in Thailand. Develop Change 31:155–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Scherr SJ, White A, Kaimowitz D (2004) A new agenda for forest conservation and poverty ­reduction: making markets work for low-income producers. Forest Trends, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  80. Schroth G, Harvey C, Vincent G (2004) Complex agroforests: their structure, diversity and potential role in landscape conservation. In: Schroth G, da Fonseca G, Harvey C, Gascon C, Vasconcelas H, Isac A-M (eds) Agroforestry and biodiversity conservation in tropical ­landscapes. Island Press, Washington, pp 227–260Google Scholar
  81. Schuren SHG, Snelder DJ (2008) Tree-growing on farms in northeast Luzon (The Philippines): smallholders’ motivations and other determinants for adopting agroforestry systems. In: Snelder DJ, Lasco RD (eds) Smallholder tree growing for rural development and environmental services. Springer, Netherlands, pp 75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schwartzman S, Moreira A, Nepstad D (2000) Rethinking tropical forest conservation: perils in parks. Conserv Biol 14:1351–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shackelton S, Campbell B, Wollenberg D, Edmunds D (2002) Devolution and community-based natural reource management: creating space for local people to participate and benefit? ODI Natural Resource Perspectives No 76. Overseas Development Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Sikor T (2001) The allocation of forestry land in Vietnam: did it cause the expansion of forests in the northwest? Forest Policy Econ 2:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. STCP (2009) Encouraging industrial forest plantations in the tropics: report of a global study, vol No 33, ITTO Technical Series. International Tropical Timbers Organization, YokohamaGoogle Scholar
  86. Sunderlin WD, Angelsen A, Belcher B, Burgers P, Nasi R, Santoso L, Wunder S (2005) Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: an overview. World Develop 33:1383–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sunderlin WD, Huynh TB (2005) Poverty alleviation and forests in Vietnam. Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  88. Terborgh J (1999) Reqiem for nature. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  89. Tyynela T, Otsama R, Otsama A (2003) Indigenous livelihood systems in industrial tree plantation areas in West Kalimantan, Indonesia: economics and plant species richness. Agroforest Syst 57:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. van Schaik C, Terborgh J, Dugelby B (1997) The silent crisis: the state of rain forest nature preserves. In: Kramer R, van Schaik C, Johnson J (eds) Last stand: protected areas and the defense of tropical biodiversity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 64–89Google Scholar
  91. Victor M, Lang C, Bornemeier J (1997) Community forestry at a crossroads: reflections and future directions in the development of community forestry. Proceedings of an international seminar. Regional Community Forestry Training Centre.Google Scholar
  92. Wells M, McShane TO (2004) Integrating protected area management with local needs and aspirations. Ambio 33:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Westoby J (1987) The purpose of forests: follies of development. Blackwells, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  94. Whiteman A (2004) Review of plans and policies concerning forestry and poverty alleviation in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. RETA No 6115-REG. Asian Development BankGoogle Scholar
  95. Wilshusen PR, Brechin SR, Fortwangler CL, West PC (2002) Reinventing a square wheel: critique of a resurgent ‘protection paradigm’ in international biodiversity conservation. Soc Nat Res 15:17–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wollenberg E, Ingles A (1998) Incomes from the forest. Center for International Forestry Research and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, BogorGoogle Scholar
  97. Wooff W (2009) Sabah forest industries experiences in plantation forestry. Conference on the current state of plantation forestry in Malaysia: a special focus on Sabah, Forestry Department Headquarters, Sandakan, 18–20 November 2009Google Scholar
  98. World Bank (2001) World development report 2000/2001: attacking poverty. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  99. World Bank (2004) Global monitoring report: policies and actions for achieving the millenium development goals and related outcomes. World Bank, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  100. Wormald TJ (1992) Mixed and pure forest plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Mined Land RehabilitationUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations