Advertisement

Multidimensionality of Scales and Approaches for Forest–Water Interactions

  • Ivan PilašEmail author
  • Karl-Heinz Feger
  • Urša Vilhar
  • Andreas Wahren
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 212)

Abstract

Scaling of forest and water relations are mostly concerned with two diverse ­dimensions resulting from trade-off in various environmental and regional conditions. On one side, scaling is used to develop best forest management practice with the aim of reducing runoff and providing good quality water. In conditions of water scarcity, scaling is mostly concerned with the protection of the forest cover which provides other beneficiary goods and services such as timber, biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Forests significantly influence the hydrological cycle, mostly in a beneficiary way: forests, due to higher infiltration rates and soil water consumption induce lower stormflows and greater soil stability than any other vegetation type, forest soils also purify water. On the contrary, in arid and semi-arid conditions, the effects of forests on hydrology can be unfavorable because forests as major water consumers contribute to water supply deficiency. Global warming claims better utilization of forest hydrological goods and services and new approaches on adaptive forest management as a result of climate change. Climate change also generates new scaling challenges of forest and water interactions.

Keywords

Forest Management Forest Cover Drinking Water Quality Ground Vegetation Flood Protection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Andersson FO, Feger KH, Hüttl RF, Kräuchi N, Mattsson L, Sallnäs O, Sjöberg K (2000) Forest ecosystem research – priorities for Europe. For Ecol Manage 132:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, FO, Angelstam P, Feger KH, Hasenauer H, Kräuchi N, Mårell A, Matteucci G, Schneider U, Tabbush P (eds) (2005) A research strategy for sustainable forest management in Europe. – COST Action E25 ENFORS Technical Report 5, GIP ECOFOR, Paris, 149 p. ISBN 2-914770-08-1Google Scholar
  3. Angelstam P, Feger KH, Hasenauer H, Schneider U, Mårell A (2005) Chapter 4: A holistic research strategy. In: Andersson F, Angelstam P, Feger KH, Hasenauer H. Kräuchi N, Mårell A, Matteucci G, Schneider U, Tabbush P (eds) A research strategy for sustainable forest management in Europe. – COST Action E25 ENFORS Technical Report 5, GIP ECOFOR, Paris: 39–62 ISBN 2-914770-08-1Google Scholar
  4. Archaux F, Wolters V (2006) Impact of summer drought on forest biodiversity: what do we know? Ann For Sci 63:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armbruster M, Abiy M, Feger KH (2003) The biogeochemistry of two forested catchments in the Black Forest and the eastern Ore Mountains (Germany) – effects of changing atmospheric inputs on soil solution and streamwater chemistry. Biogeochemistry 65:341–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armbruster M, Köhler H, Feger KH (2000) Chemische Zusammensetzung zweier quellnaher Waldbäche im Hochschwarzwald – Abflussabhängige Variabilität und Einfluss einer Bodenkalkung. Forstw Cbl 119:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnšek A (2001) Aktualni trendi razvoja traktorskih olj. Trendi v razvoju kmetijske tehnike: zbornik simpozija. Društvo kmetijske tehnike, Radenci, pp 167–174Google Scholar
  8. Barlow M, Clarke T (2002) Blue gold: the fight to stop the corporate theft of the World’s water. New York Press, New York, p 278Google Scholar
  9. Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S Palutikof JP, (eds) (2008) Climate change and water; Technical paper of the intergovernmental panel on climate change; IPCC Secretariat; Geneva; 210 pp; ISBN: 978-92-9169-123-4Google Scholar
  10. Binkley D, Macdonald LH (1994) Forests as non-point sources of pollution, and effectiveness of Best Management Practices. National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, New York, 57 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Boczon A (ed) (2006) Assesing of soil and water conditions in forests. Forest Research Institute, Center for Exellence PROFOREST for Protection of Forest Resources in Central Europe, Warsaw, pp 141–145Google Scholar
  12. Bončina A, Diaci J (1998) Contemporary research on regeneration patterns of Central European virgin forests with recomendation for future research. Zbornik Gozdarstva Lesarstva 56:33–53Google Scholar
  13. Breda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E (2006) Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Ann For Sci 63:625–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bronstert A, Niehoff D, Fritsch U (2003) Auswirkungen von Landnutzungsänderungen auf die Hochwasserentstehung. Petermanns Geogr Mitt 6:24–33Google Scholar
  15. Calder I, Hofer T, Vermont S, Warren P (2007a) Towards a new understanding of forests and water. Unasylva 58(4):3–11Google Scholar
  16. Calder IR (2006) Forest and floods: moving to an evidence-based approach to watershed and integrated flood management. Water Int 31:87–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calder IR, Smyle J, Aylward B (2007a) Debate over flood-proofing effects of planting forests. Nature 450:945 (published online 12 Dec 2007) Accessed 7 June 2008Google Scholar
  18. Calder IR, Hofer T, Vermont S, Warren P (2007b) Towards a new understanding of forests and water – In: Perlis A (ed) Forests and water. Unasylva 229; Vol. 58, 2007/4; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Rome; Web-document. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1598e/a1598e02.htm Accessed 17 Oct 2008
  19. Chang M (2003) Forest hydrology: an introduction to water and forests. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, 392 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Croke J, Hairsine P, Fogarty P (2001) Soil recovery from track construction and harvesting changes in surface infiltration, erosion and delivery rates with time. For Ecol Manag 143:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cruiziat P, Cochard H, Ameglio T (2002) Hydraulic architecture of trees: main concepts and results. Ann For Sci 59:723–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dankers R, Christensen OB, Feyen L, Kalas M, de Roo A (2007) Evaluation of very high-resolution climate model data for simulating flood hazards in the Upper Danube Basin. J Hydrol 347(3–4):319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Desprez-Loustau ML, Marçais B, Nageleisen LM, Piou D, Vannini A (2006) Interactive effects of drought and pathogens in forest trees. Ann For Sci 63:597–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DMP Report (2007) Drought management plan report: Including agricultural, drought indicators and climate change aspects. Water scarcity and droughts expert network. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/quantity/pdf/dmp_report.pdf. Accessed 21 Dec 2008
  25. Dudley N, Stolton S (2003) Running pure: the importance of forest protected areas to drinking water. A research report for the World Bank / WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable UseGoogle Scholar
  26. EC (2000) Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council; published in the Official Journal of the European Union; L 288/27; 22 Dec 2000Google Scholar
  27. EC (2007) Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council; published in the Official Journal of the European Union; OJ L 327; 6 Nov 2007Google Scholar
  28. European Environmental Agency (2008a) About climate change; European Environment Agency; Web-document. http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/climate/about-climate-change
  29. EU (2000) DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. L 327/1 Official Journal of the European CommunitiesGoogle Scholar
  30. European Environmental Agency (2008b) European forests – ecosystem conditions and sustainable use. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2008_3. Accessed 16 Jan 2009
  31. European Environmental Agency (2008c) European forests – ecosystem conditions and sustainable use. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/eea_report_2008_3
  32. FAO (2003) Sustainable use and management of freshwater resources: the role of forests – In: Perlis A, Wearne L, Moore B (Eds.) State of World’s Forests (2003) Published by Center for International Forestry Research Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Rome; http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y7581E/y7581e09.htmP0-27
  33. FAO (2005): Forests and floods - Drowning in fiction or thriving on facts?; RAP Publication 2005/03 Forest Perspectives 2; Published by Center for International Forestry Research Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 40 pp.; ISBN 979-3361-64-6; http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae929e/ae929e00.htmContents Accessed 12 July 2008
  34. Feger KH (1993) Influence of soil development and management practices on freshwater acidification in Central European forest ecosystems. - In: C.E.W. Steinberg and R.W. Wright (Eds.): Acidification of Freshwater Ecosystems: Implications for the Future. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.:67–82Google Scholar
  35. Feger KH (1997/98) Boden- und Wasserschutz in mitteleuropäischen Wäldern - I. Rahmenbedingungen. - Bodenschutz 2: 18-23; II. Gefährdungspotentiale und Bewertung. - Bodenschutz 2: 134-138; III. Waldbauliche Möglichkeiten und Maßnahmen des technischen Bodenschutzes. - Bodenschutz 3: 103–108Google Scholar
  36. Feger KH (2007) Forests and water cycle – thematic introduction and symposium overview. – In: Feger K.H., Wang Yanhui, C. Bernhofer, Jörg Seegert (Eds.) (2007): Progress in Hydro Science and Engineering; Dresden Water Center Volume 3/2007:13–20; Dresden; ISBN: 978-3-86780-074-7Google Scholar
  37. Frehner M, Wasser B, Schwitter R (2005) Nachhaltigkeit und Erfolgskontrolle im Schutzwald. Wegleitung für Pflegemassnahmen in Wäldern mit Schutzfunktion. Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL), Bern, Switzerland p.20: 879–881Google Scholar
  38. Glatzel G (1991) The impact of historic land use and modern forestry on nutrient relations of Central European forest ecosystems. Fertilizer Research 27: 1–8Google Scholar
  39. Gobron N, Pinty B, Aussedat O, Chen J, Cohen WB, Fensholt R, Gond V, Hummerich KF, Lavergne T, Melin F, Privette JL, Sandholt I, Taberner M, Turner DP, Verstraete MM, Widlowski J-L (2006) Evaluation FAPAR products for different canopy radiation transfer regimes: Methodology and results using JRC products derived from SeaWiFS against ground-based estimations. J Geophysical Res 111:D13110. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006511 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Granier A, Reichstein M, Breda N, Janssens IA, Falge E, Ciais P, Grünwald T, Aubinet M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Facini O, Grassi G, Heinesch B, Ilvesniemi H, Keronen P, Knohl A, Köstner B, Langergen F, Lindroth A, Longdoz B, Loustau D, Mateus J, Montagnani L, Nys C, Moors E, Papale D, Peiffer M, Pilegaard K, Pita G, Pumpanen J, Rambal S, Rebmann C, Rodrigues A, Seufert G, Tenhunen J, Vesala T, Wang Q (2007) Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003. Agric Meteorol 143:123–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Huber C., Weis W., Baumgarten M., Göttlein A. (2004) Spatial and temporal variation of seepage water chemistry after femel and small scale clear-cutting in a N-saturated Norway spruce stand. Plant and Soil, 267: 23-40Google Scholar
  42. Huber C (2005) Long lasting nitrate leaching after bark beetle attack in the highlands of the Bavarian Forest National Park. J. Environ. Qual. 34: 1772–1779Google Scholar
  43. Infante JM, Domingo F, Fernandez Ales R, Joffre R, Rambal S (2003) Quercus ilex transpiration as affected by prolonged drought period. Biol Plant 46(1):49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Initiative Weißeritz-Regio (2007) Waldwirkung und Hochwasser; Ein Leitfaden für Landnutzer und Entscheidungsträger (in German); Arbeitsgruppe Wald und Hochwasser in der Initiative Weißeritz-Regio;Bärenfels; 29pp; http://www.tudresden.de/ioer/statisch/weisseritz/html/frame.htm. Accessed 5 September 2010
  45. Institute for World Forestry (2008) The condition of forests in Europe. International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. http://www.icp-forests.org/pdf/ER2008.pdf. Accessed 29. November 2008
  46. Klap JM, Oude Voshaar JH, de Vries W, Erisman JW (1999) Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV: statistical analysis of relationships. Water Air Soil Pollut 119:387–420, 2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kreutzer K (1995): Effects of forest liming on soil processes. Plant and Soil 168/69: 447–470Google Scholar
  48. Košir P (2006) Gozdnogospodarski vidiki ohranjanja voda visokega krasa na primeru GE Draga. Magistrsko delo. Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za gozdarstvo. Univrza v Ljubljani, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  49. Landsberg JJ, Gower ST (1997) Applications of physiological ecology to forest management. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  50. Laurance WF (2007) Environmental science: Forests and floods, Nature 449: 409–410Google Scholar
  51. Lee R (1980) Forest hydrology. Columbia university press, New York, p 349Google Scholar
  52. Lexer MJ (2009) Expected Climate Change & Options for European Silviculture: WG2 Adaptation. COST Action FP703 – Echoes, 1st scientific conference, 22–25 January, Florence, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  53. Likens GE, Bormann FH, Johnson NM, Fisher DW, Pierce RS (1970) Effects of Forest Cutting and Herbicide Treatment on Nutrient Budgets in the Hubbard Brook Watershed-Ecosystem. Ecol. Monographs 40: 23–47Google Scholar
  54. Lloyd-Hughes B, Saunders MA (2002) A drought climatology for Europe. Int J Climatol 22:1571–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Luterbacher J, Dietrich D, Xoplaki E, Grosjean M, Wanner H (2004) European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends and extremes since 1500. Science 303(5663):1499–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mannerkoski H (2005) Management of European forests under changing climatic conditions. Research Notes 163. University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry. http://www.efi.int/portal/project/silvistrat/ Accessed 19 Jan 2009
  57. Mellert K-H, Kölling C, and Rehfuess KE (1996) Bioelement leaching from Norway spruce ecosystems in Bavaria after windthrow. Forstw. Cbl. 115:363–377Google Scholar
  58. Mulkey LA (ed) (1980) An Approach to Water Resources Evaluation on Non-Point Silviculture Sources (A Procedural Handbook). Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Münch A, Dittrich I, Wahren A (2007) The effects of changes in tree species composition and of afforestation on water budget and flood dynamics calculated wit AKWA-M®, Ore mountains. In: Feger KH, Wang Yanhui C Bernhofer, Jörg Seegert (eds) Progress in hydro science and engineering; Dresden Water Center Volume 3/2007:331–337; Dresden; ISBN: 978-3-86780-074-7Google Scholar
  60. Münch A (2004) AKWA-M® – Teilflächen basiertes Wasserhaushalts- und Hochwassermodell (in German); Dr. Dittrich & Partner Hydro-Consult GmbH; BannewitzGoogle Scholar
  61. Nabuurs GJ, Masera O, Andrasko K, Benitez-Ponce P, Boer R, Dutschke M, Elsiddig E, Ford-Robertson J, Frumhoff P, Karjalainen T, Krankina O, Kurz WA, Matsumoto M, Oyhantcabal W, Ravindranath NH, Sanz Sanchez MJ, Zhang X (2007) Forestry. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/assessments-reports.htm. Accessed 9 Sept 2008
  62. Naef F, Scherrer S, Thoma C, Weiler M, Fackel P (2000) Die Beurteilung von Einzugsgebieten und ihrer Teilflächen nach der Abflussbereitschaft unter Berücksichtigung der landwirtschaftlichen Nutzung – aufgezeigt an drei Einzugsgebieten in Rheinland-Pfalz (in German); Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz/Germany; Bericht Nr. B003. 186 ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Nisbet TR (2001) The role of forest management in controlling diffuse pollution in UK forestry. For Ecol and Manag 143:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pichler P, Oberhuber W (2007) Radial growth response of coniferous forest trees in an inner Alpine environment to heat-wave in 2003. For Ecol and Manag 242:688–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pilaš I, Lukić N, Vrbek B, Dubravac T, Roth V (2007) The effect of groundwater decrease on short and longterm variations of radial growth and dieback of mature pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stand. Ekologia (Bratislava) 26(2):122–131Google Scholar
  66. Potočić N, Ćosić T, Pilaš I (2005) The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Environ Pollut 137:569–602Google Scholar
  67. Prybolotna N (2006) Content of the sediment in runoff in the small Beskid’s watershed. In: Boczoń A (ed) Assessing of soil and water conditions in forests. Forest Research Institute, WarsawGoogle Scholar
  68. Rebetez M, Mayer H, Dupont O, Schindler D, Gartner K, Kropp JP, Menzel A (2006) Heat and drought 2003 in Europe: a climate synthesis. Ann For Sci 63:569–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schüler G, Gellweiler I, Seeling S (Eds.) (2007) Dezentraler Wasserrückhalt in der Landschaft durch vorbeugende Maßnahmen der Waldwirtschaft, der Landwirtschaft und im Siedlungswesen; Das INTERREG IIIB NWE Projekt WaReLa – Ergebnisse aus vier Jahren Umsetzung und Forschung für einen nachhaltigen Hochwasserschutz in der Fläche (in German); Mitteilungen aus der Forschungsanstalt für Waldökologie und Forstwirtschaft Rheinland-Pfalz; Nr. 64/07Google Scholar
  70. Schüler G (2006) Identification of flood-generating forest areas and forestry measures for water retention. Forest Snow Landscape Res 80:99–114Google Scholar
  71. Schulla J, Jasper K (2001) Model DescriptionWaSiM-ETH; Internal report; IAC; ETH Zürich; 166 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Serengil Y, Gökbulak F, Özhan S, Hızal A, Şengönül K (2007) Alteration of stream nutrient discharge with increased sedimentation due to thinning of a deciduous forest in Istanbul. For Ecol and Manag 246:264–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sevanto S (2003) Tree stem diameter change measurements and sap flow in Scots Pine. Academic dissertation. Report Series in physics, University of Helsinki. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/mat/fysik/vk/sevanto/treestem.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2006
  74. SMUL (2000) Ökologische Studie – Beiträge zur Entwicklung eines ökologischen Leitbildes für die Flusslandschaften am Beispiel der Jahne, einem Nebenfluss der Elbe in Sachsen; Publ.: Saxon State Ministry of the Environment and Agriculture; DresdenGoogle Scholar
  75. Sönnichsen D (2005) Q oder W – worauf konzentriert sich Hochwasservorsorge? (in German); WasserWirtschaft; Zeitschrift für Wasser und Umwelt; Verlag Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig/Wiesbaden; No. 6:20–26Google Scholar
  76. Spittlehouse DL, Steward RB (2003) Adaptation to climate change in forest management. BC J Ecosyst Manag 4(1):1–11Google Scholar
  77. Swank WT (1988) Stream chemistry responses to disturbance. in W.T. Swank and D.A. Crossley (eds) Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta. Ecological Series 66, Springer Verlag. New York, 339–358Google Scholar
  78. Thomas FM (2008) Recent advances in cause-effect research on oak decline in Europe. CAB Rev: Persp Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 37(3):1–12Google Scholar
  79. Tockner K (2007) River restoration: linking science with application. Ecol Civil Eng 10(1):15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje P, Bojariu R, Easterling D, Klein Tank A, Parker D, Rahimzadeh F, Renwick JA, Rusticucci M, Soden B, Zhai P (2007) Observations: surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ar4-wg1.htm. Accessed 15 Nov 2008
  81. Trontelj M (2006) Vzdrževanje in obratovanje lovilcev olj in maščob. V Xlll.R. Slovenska vojska, SOP št. 1407, 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  82. Twery MJ, Hornbeck JW (2001) Incorporating water goals into forest management decisions at a local level. For Ecol Manag 143:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van der Werf GW, Saas-Klaassen GW, Mohren GMJ (2006) The impact of the 2003 summer drought on the intra-annual growth pattern of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on dry site in the Netherlands. Dendrochronologia 25:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Veny ES (1986) Forest harvesting and water: the lake states experience. Water Resour Bull 22:1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Verstraete MM, Gobron N, Aussedat O, Robustelli M, Pinty B, Windlowski JL, Taberner M (2008) An automatic procedure to identify key vegetation phenology events using the JRC-FAPAR products. Adv Space Res 41:1773–1783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vilhar U (2006) Vodna bilanca dinarskega jelovo-bukovega gozda na Kočevskem rogu. WATER BALANCE OF A DINARIC SILVER FIR - BEECH FOREST IN KOČEVSKI ROG. Doktorska disertacija. Ph.D.Thesis. Biotehniška fakulteta, Odd. za gozdarstvo in obnovljive gozdne vire. Univerza v Ljubljani, LjubljanaGoogle Scholar
  87. Vilhar U (ed) (2009) Vpliv gospodarjenja na vodno bilanco jelovo-bukovih gozdov Dinarskega krasa / Influence of management on water balance of the silver fir-beech forests in the dinaric karst. Studia forestalia Slovenica 133. Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije, Ljubljana, 122ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Vilhar U, Fajon Š (2007) Vpliv gozda in gozdnogojitvenih ukrepov na hidrološki režim vodozbirnega območja. In: Kovač M (ed) Gozd in voda: rezultati projekta [Interreg III A]. Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije, Zavod za gozdove Slovenije, Ljubljana, pp 16–21Google Scholar
  89. Vogt JV, Somma F (2000) Drought and drought mitigation in Europe, Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  90. Von Burger H (1954a) Einfluss des Waldes auf den Stand der Gewaesser. II. Mitteilung. Der Wasserhaushalt im Sperbel- und Rappengraben von 1915/16 bis 1926/27. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Anstalt fuer forstliche Versuchswesen XVIII:311–416Google Scholar
  91. Von Burger H (1954b) Einfluss des Waldes auf den Stand der Gewaesser. V. Mitteilung. Der Wasserhaushalt im Sperbel- und Rappengraben von 1942/1943 bis 1951/52. Mitteilungen Schweizerischen Anstalt Forstliche Versuchswesen XXXI:9–58Google Scholar
  92. Wahren A, Feger KH, Schwärzel K, Münch A (2009) Land-use effects on flood generation – considering soil hydraulic measurements in modeling. Adv Geosci 7:1–9Google Scholar
  93. Wahren A, Münch A, Dittrich I (2007a) Identification and model based assessment of the potential water retention caused by land use changes. Adv Geosci 11:49–56, http://www.adv-geosci.net/11/index.html1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wahren A, Schwärzel K, Feger KH (2007b) Flood formation based on contrasting socio-economically founded land-use scenarios. In: Proceedings of the scientific conference on “Integrated catchment management for hazard mitigation”, Trier, pp 60–68. http://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2007/438/
  95. Wahren A, Schwärzel K, Feger KH (2008) Uncertainties in the parameterisation of rainfall-runoff-models to quantify land-use effects in flood risk assessment. In: Samuels P, Huntington S, Allsop W, Harrop J (eds) Flood risk management: research and practice. CRC Press/Balkema proceedings and monographs in engineering; Water and Earth Science; pp. 1479–1483; Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN: 978-0-415-48507-4Google Scholar
  96. Weis W, Huber C, Goetlein A (2001) Regeneration of mature Norway spruce stands: early effects of selective cutting and clear cutting on seepage water quality and soil fertility. Optimizing nitrogen management in food and energy production and environmental protection: proceedings of the 2nd international nitrogen conference on science and policy. Sci World 1(S2):493–499Google Scholar
  97. Zweifel R, Steppe K, Sterck F (2007) Stomatal regulation by microclimate and tree water relations: interpreting ecophysiological field data with a hydraulic plant model. J Exp Bot 58(8):2113–2131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan Pilaš
    • 1
    Email author
  • Karl-Heinz Feger
    • 2
  • Urša Vilhar
    • 3
  • Andreas Wahren
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of EcologyCroatian Forestry InstituteJastrebarskoCroatia
  2. 2.Institute of Soil Science and Site EcologyTechnische Universität DresdenTharandtGermany
  3. 3.Department of Forest EcologySlovenian Forestry InstituteLjubljanaSlovenija
  4. 4.Dr. Dittrich and Partner Hydro-Consult GmbHBannewitzGermany

Personalised recommendations