Advertisement

Afforestation Strategies with Respect to Forest–Water Interactions

  • Yannis RaftoyannisEmail author
  • Michael Bredemeier
  • Rasa Buozyte
  • Norbert Lamersdorf
  • Andreas Mavrogiakoumos
  • Edda Oddsdóttir
  • Ivaylo Velichkov
Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 212)

Abstract

The relationships of afforestation and the water cycle is the subject of this chapter. Forests consume more water than other land use types but also improve peak flow control in wetter environments. As a consequence, large scale afforestation efforts usually reduce ground water yields and runoff and extensive energy wood plantations can be financially attractive only in the more humid environments of Europe. On the other hand, the success of afforestations is a major concern in the dry Mediterranean environment. Carefully selected tree species and their combinations, together with specially adapted site preparation and planting techniques are offering perspectives for successful afforestation efforts even under harsh and adverse drought regimes.

Keywords

Groundwater Recharge Water Yield Nitrate Leaching Short Rotation Coppice Nurse Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agam N, Berliner PR (2006) Dew formation and water vapor adsorption in semi-arid environments. A review. J Arid Environ 65:572–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcamo J, Moreno JM, Nováky B, Bindi M, Corobov R, Devoy RJN, Giannakopoulos C, Martin E, Olesen JE, Shvidenko A (2007) Europe. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen A, Chapman D (2001) Impact of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality. Hydrogeol J 9:390–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2001) Review of the effects of energy crops on hydrology, Final project report UK. http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/crops/industrial/research/reports/nf0416.pdf
  5. Ashby WC (1997) Soil ripping and herbicides enhance tree and shrub restoration on stripmines. Restor Ecol 5:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Augusto L, Ranger J, Binkley D, Rothe A (2002) Impact of several common tree species of European temperate forests on soil fertility. Ann For Sci 59:233–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbera GG, Martinez-Fernandez F, Alvarez-Rogel J, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2005) Short- and intermediate-term effects of site and plant preparation techniques on reforestation of a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem with Pinus halepensis Mill. New For 29:177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berger TW, Inselsbacher E, Mutsch F, Pfeffer, M (2009) Nutrient cycling and soil leaching in eighteen pure and mixed stands of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies). Forest Ecology and Management 258 (11):2578–2592Google Scholar
  9. Binkley D, Sollins P, Bell R, Sachs D, Myrold D (1992) Biogeochemistry of adjacent conifer and alder-conifer stands. Ecology 73:2022–2033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blondel J, Aronson J (1999) Biology and wildlife of the Mediterranean region. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Bren L, Hopmans P (2007) Paired catchments observations on the water yield of mature eucalypt and immature radiata pine plantations in Victoria, Australia. J Hydrol 336:416–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brisette JC, Barnett JP, Landis TD (1991) Container seedlings. In: Duryea ML, Dougherty PM (eds) Forest regeneration manual. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands/Boston/LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruijnzeel LA (2004) Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees? Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:185–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bulgarian Ministry of Environment and Water (2008) Program concerning the necessary measures in the circumstances of trend to drought. http://www.moew.government.bg/index_e.htmlAccessed 09 Sep 2010
  15. Bungart R, Huttl RF (2001) Production of biomass for energy in post-mining landscapes and nutrient dynamics. Biomass Bioenergy 20:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burdett AN (1990) Physiological processes in plantation establishment and the development of specifications for forest planting stock. Can J For Res 20:415–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buytaert W, Iniguez V, De Bievre B (2007) The effects of afforestation and cultivation on water yield in the Andean paramo. For Ecol Manage 251:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calder IR (2007) Forests and water-ensuring forest benefits outweigh water costs. For Ecol Manage 251:110–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castro J, Zamora R, Hodar JA, Gomez JM (2002) The use of shrubs as nurse plants: a new technique for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains. Restor Ecol 10:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castro J, Zamora R, Hodar JA, Gomez JM, Gomez-Aparicio L (2004) Benefits of using shrubs as nurse plants for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains: a 4-year study. Restor Ecol 12:352–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chirino E, Vilagrosa A, Hernandez EI, Matos A, Vallejo VR (2008) Effects of a deep container on morpho-functional characteristics and root colonization in Quercus suber L. seedlings for reforestation in Mediterranean climate. For Ecol Manag 256:779–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cornish PM, Vertessy RA (2001) Forest age-induced changes in evapotranspiration and water yield in a eucalypt forest. J Hydrol 242:43–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Schrijver A, Geudens G, Augusto L, Staelens J, Mertens J, Wuyts K, Gielis L, Verheyen K (2007) The effect of forest type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux: a review. Oecologia 153:663–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Schrijver A, Staelens J, Wuyts K, Van Hoydonck G, Janssen N, Mertens J, Gielis L, Geudens G, Augusto L, Verheyen K (2008) Effect of vegetation type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux. Environ Pollut 153:295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Del Campo AD, Navarro RM, Aguilella A, Gonzalez E (2006) Effect of tree shelter design on water condensation and run-off and its potential benefit for reforestation establishment in semiarid climates. For Ecol Manag 235:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deutmeyer M (2007) Strategies for supply of raw material in the energy industry. FAO, Geneva, http://www.unece.org/trade/timber/workshops/2007/wmw/presentations/07_Choren.pdf Google Scholar
  27. Dise NB, Rothwell JJ, Gauci V, van der Salm C, de Vries W (2009) Predicting dissolved inorganic nitrogen leaching in European forests using two independent databases. Sci Total Environ 407:1798–1808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duan X, Neuman DS, Reiber JM, Green CD, Saxton AM, Auge RM (1996) Mycorrhizal influence onhydraulic and hormonal factors involvedinthe control of stomatal conductance during drought. J Exp Bot 47:1541–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duryea ML (1984) Nursery cultural practices: impacts on seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, Boston, LancasterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ellis TW, Leguedois S, Hairsine PB et al (2006) Capture of overland flow by a tree belt on a pastured hillslope in south-eastern Australia. Aust J Soil Res 44:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farley KA, Jobbagy EG, Jackson RB (2005) Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy. Glob Change Biol 11:1565–1576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fischlin A, Midgley GF, Price JT, Leemans R, Gopal B, Turley C, Rounsevell MDA, Dube OP, Tarazona J, Velichko AA (2007) Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. Flemming RL, Black TA, Adams RS (1996) Site preparation effects on Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine water relations following planting in a pine-grass dominated clearcut. For Ecol Manag 83:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuentesa D, Valdecantosa A, Cortina J, Vallejo VR (2007) Seedling performance in sewage sludge-amended degraded Mediterranean woodlands. Ecol Eng 31:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Garcıa C, Hernandez T, Roldan A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (2000) Organic amendment and mycorrhizal inoculation as a practice in afforestation of soils with Pinus halepensis Mill: effect on their microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1173–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Girard S, Clement A, Cochard H, Boulet-Gercourt B, Guehl JM (1997) Effects of desiccation on post-planting stress in bareroot Corsican pine seedlings. Tree Physiol 17:429–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gomez-Aparicio L, Zamora R, Gomez JM, Hodar JA, Castro J, Baraza E (2004) Applying plant facilitation to forest restoration: a meta-analysis of the use of shrubs as nurse plants. Ecol Appl 14:1128–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grossnickle SC (1988) Planting stress in newly planted jack pine and white spruce. 1. Factors influencing water uptake. Tree Physiol 4:71–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guehl JM, Aussenac G, Kaushal P (1989) The effects of transplanting stress on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential in Cedrus atlantica: role of root regeneration. Ann Sci For 46S:464–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guehl JM, Clement A, Kaushal P, Aussenac G (1993) Planting stress, water status and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in Corsican pine seedlings. Tree Physiol 12:173–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gundersen P, Schmidt IK, Raulund-Rasmussen K (2006) Leaching of nitrate from temperate forests – effects of air pollution and forest management. Environ Rev 14:1–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hansen K, Rosenqvist L, Vesterdal L et al (2007) Nitrate leaching from three afforestation chronosequences on former arable land in Denmark. Glob Change Biol 13:1250–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harvey AE, Page-Dumroese DS, Jurgensen MF, Graham RT, Tonn JR (1996) Site preparation alters biomass, root and ectomycorrhizal development of outplanted western white pine and Douglas-fir. New For 11:255–270Google Scholar
  44. Heitz R, Rehfuess KE (1999) Reconversion of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) stands into mixed forests: effects on soil properties and nutrient fluxes. In: Olsthoorn AFM (ed) Management of mixed-species forest: silviculture and economics. Institute for Forestry and Nature Research, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  45. Horton JL, Hart SC (1998) Hydraulic lift: a potentially important ecosystem process. Trends Ecol Evol 13:232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horváth B, Meiwes KJ, Meesenburg H (2009) Die Bedeutung von Baumart und Bestandesalter für die Nitrat-versickerung unter Wald in der Region Weser-Ems. Forstarchiv 80:35–41Google Scholar
  47. Huttermann A, Zommorodi M, Reise K (1999) Addition of hydrogels to soil for prolonging the survival of Pinus halepensis seedlings subjected to drought. Soil Till Res 50:295–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Insley H, Buckley GP (1985) The influence of desiccation and root pruning at the survival and growth of broadleaved seedlings. J Hortic Sci 60:377–387Google Scholar
  49. Iversen TM, Grant R, Nielsen K (1998) Nitrogen enrichment of European inland and marine waters with special attention to Danish policy measures. Environ Pollut 102:771–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jackson RB, Jobbagy EG, Avissar R, Roy SB, Barrett DJ, Cook CW, Farley KA, le Maitre DC, McCarl BA, Murray BC (2005) Trading water for carbon with biological sequestration. Science 310:1944–1947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jimenez MN, Fernandez E, Ondono E, Ripoll MA, Navarro FB, Gallego E, De Simon E, Lallena AM (2007) Influence of different post-planting treatments on the development in Holm oak afforestation. Trees 21:443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson R (1998) The forest cycle and low river flows. A review of UK and international studies. For Ecol Manage 109:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaushal P, Aussenac G (1989) Transplanting shock in Corsican Pine and Cedar of Atlas seedlings: internal water deficits, growth and root regeneration. For Ecol Manage 27:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kidron GJ (2005) Angle and aspect dependent dew and fog precipitation in the Negev desert. J Hydrol 301:66–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knur L (2008) Unpublished manuscript. http://www.dendrom.de/content/index_ 1.cfm?id_bereich= 51&id_nr=407&CFID=104718&CFTOKEN=19452341
  56. Körner C, Sarris D, Christodoulakis D (2005) Long-term increase in climatic dryness in the East Mediterranean as evidenced for the island of Samos. Reg Environ Change 5:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kozlowski TT (1985) Tree growth in response to environmental stresses. J Arboric 11:97–111Google Scholar
  58. Kozlowski TT, Davies WJ (1975) Control of water balance in transplanted trees. Arboriculture 1:1–10Google Scholar
  59. Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  60. Kristensen HL, Gundersen P, Callesen I, Reinds GJ (2004) Relationships between soil nitrate concentrations and environmental factors. Ecosystems 7:180–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kroiher F, Bielefeldt J, Bolte A, Schulter M (2008) Die Phytodiversität in Energieholzbestän¬den – erste Ergebnisse im Rahmen des Projekts NOVALIS. Arch Forstwesen Landschaftsökol 42:158–165Google Scholar
  62. Kubiske ME, Abrams MD (1992) Photosynthesis, water relations, and leaf morphology of xeric versus mesic Quercus rubra ecotypes in central Pennsylvania in relation to moisture stress. Can J For Res 22:1402–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ladekarl UL, Rasmussen KR, Christensen S, Jensen KH, Hansen B (2005) J Hydrol 300:76–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lamersdorf N, Bielefeldt J, Bolte A, Busch G, Dohrenbusch A, Kroiher F, Schulz U, Stoll B (2008) Das Projekt NOVALIS – zur naturverträglichen Produktion von Energieholz in der Landwirtschaft. Arch Forstwesen Landschaftsökol 42:138–141Google Scholar
  65. Lane PNJ, Best AE, Hickel K et al (2005) The response of flow duration curves to afforestation. J Hydrol 310:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leyva MJ, Fernandez-Ales R (1998) Variability in seedlings water status during drought within a Quercus ilex subsp. ballota population, and its relation to seedling morphology. For Ecol Manage 111:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindroth A, Bath A (1999) Assessment of regional willow coppice yield in Sweden on basis of water availability. For Ecol Manage 121:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MacDonald JA, Dise NB, Matzner E, Armbruster M, Gundersen P, Forsius M (2002) Nitrogen input together with ecosystem nitrogen enrichment predict nitrate leaching from European forests. Glob Chang Biol 8:1028–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maestre FT, Cortina J, Bautista S, Bellot J (2003) Does Pinus halepensis facilitate the establishment of shrubs in Mediterranean semi-arid afforestations? For Ecol Manage 176:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mannerkoski H, Finer L, Piirainen S et al (2005) Effect of clear-cutting and site preparation on the level and quality of groundwater in some headwater catchments in eastern Finland. For Ecol Manage 220:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McKay HM (1997) A review of the effect of stresses between lifting and planting on nursery stock quality and performance. New For 13:369–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McKay HM, White IMS (1997) Fine root electrolyte leakage and moisture content: indices of Sitka spruce and Douglas-fir seedling performance after desiccation. New For 13:139–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meuser A (1990) Effects of afforestation on run-off characteristics. Agric For Meteorol 50:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Morte A, Diaz G, Rodrıguez P, Alarcon JJY, Sanchez-Blanco MJ (2001) Growth and water relations in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Pinus halepensis plants in response to drought. Biol Plant 44:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Müller J, Beck W, Hornschuch F, Steiner A (2002) Quantifizierung der ökologischen Wirkungen aufwachsender Kiefern-Buchen-Mischbestände im nordeutschen Tiefland. Beiträge Forstwirtschaft Landschaftsökol 36:125–131Google Scholar
  76. Nabuurs GJ, Masera O, Andrasko K, Benitez-Ponce P, Boer R, Dutschke M, Elsiddig E, Ford-Robertson J, Frumhoff P, Karjalainen T, Krankina O, Kurz WA, Matsumoto M, Oyhantcabal W, Ravindranath NH, Sanz Sanchez MJ, Zhang X (2007) Forestry. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation, Contribution of working group III to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  77. Navarro RM, Fragueiro B, Ceacero C, Del Campo A, De Prado R (2005) Establishment of Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp. using different weed control strategies in Southern Spain. Ecol Eng 25:332–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nedyalkov S, Raev I (1988) Hydrological role of forest ecosystems. Zemizdat, Sofia (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  79. Nixon DJ, Stephens W, Tyrrel SF, Brierley EDR (2001) The potential for short rotation energy forestry on restored landfill caps. Bioresour Technol 77:237–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pattanayak SK, McCarl BA, Sommer AJ et al (2005) Water quality co-effects of greenhouse gas mitigation in US agriculture. Clim Change 71:341–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pugnaire FI, Haase P, Puigdefábregas J (1996) Facilitation between higher plant species in a semiarid environment. Ecology 77:1420–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Putuhena WM, Cordery I (2000) Some hydrological effects of changing forest cover from eucalypts to Pinus radiata. Agric For Meteorol 100:59–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Querejeta JI, Roldan A, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (1998) The role of mycorrhizae, site preparation and organic amendment in the afforestation of a semi-arid Mediterranean site with Pinus halepensis. For Sci 44:203–211Google Scholar
  84. Querejeta JI, Roldan A, Albadalejo J, Castillo V (2001) Soil water availability improved by site preparation in a Pinus halepensis afforestation under semiarid climate. For Ecol Manag 149:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Radoglou K, Raftoyannis Y (2001) Effects of desiccation and freezing on vitality and field performance of broadleaved tree species. Ann For Sci 58:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Radoglou K, Raftoyannis Υ (2002) The impact of storage, desiccation and planting date on seedling quality and survival of woody plant species. Forestry 75:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Raev I, Jelyazkov P (1980) Ecological effect of afforestation with conifers in the zone of deciduous forests. In: Marinov M (ed) Reproduction and preservation of the forest ecosystems. Sofia, Zemizdat, pp 129–146 (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar
  88. Raftoyannis Y, Radoglou K, Halivopoulos G (2006) Ecophysiology and survival of Acer pseudoplatanus L. Castanea sativa Miller. and Quercus frainetto Ten. seedlings on a reforestation site in northern Greece. New For 31:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rey-Benayas JM (1998) Growth and mortality in Quercus ilex L. seedlings after irrigation and artificial shading in Mediterranean set-aside agricultural lands. Ann Sci For 55:801–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Richards KR, Stokes C (2004) A review of forest carbon sequestration cost studies: a dozen years of research. Clim Change 63:1–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ritchie GA (1984) Assessing seedling quality. In: Duryea ML, Landis TD (eds) Forest nursery manual: production of bareroot seedlings. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague/Boston/LancasterGoogle Scholar
  92. Roberts S, Vertessy R, Grayson R (2001) Transpiration from Eucalyptus sieberi (L. Johnson) forests of different age. For Ecol Manage 143:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Robertson SMC, Hornung M, Kennedy VH (2000) Water chemistry of throughfall and soil water under four tree species at Gisburn, northwest England, before and after felling. For Ecol Manage 129:101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Robinson M, Cognard-Plancq AL, Cosandey C et al (2003) Studies of the impact of forests on peak flows and baseflows: a European perspective. For Ecol Manage 186:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roldan A, Querejeta I, Albaladejo J, Castillo V (1996) Survival and growth of Pinus halepensis Miller seedlings in a semiarid environment after forest soil transfer, terracing and organic amendments. Ann Sci For 53:1099–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ross DS, Wemple BC, Jamison AE, Fredriksen G, Shanley JB, Lawrence GB, Bailey SW, Campbell JL (2009) A cross-site comparison of factors influencing soil nitrification rates in Northeastern USA forested watersheds. Ecosystems 12:158–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rothe A, Mellert KH (2004) Effects of forest management on nitrate concentrations in seepage water of forests in southern Bavaria, Germany. Water Air Soil Pollut 156:337–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rothe A, Huber C, Kreutzer K et al (2002) Deposition and soil leaching in stands of Norway spruce and European Beech: Results from the Hoglwald research in comparison with other European case studies. Plant Soil 240:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Royo A, Gil L, Pardos JA (2001) Effect of water stress conditioning on morphology, physiology and field performance of Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings. New For 21:127–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Savill P, Evans J, Auclair D, Falck J (1997) Plantation silviculture in Europe. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  101. Schiller G, Cohen Y (1998) Water balance of Pinus halepensis Mill. afforestation in an arid region. For Ecol Manage 105:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schulz U, Brauner O, Grub H, Neuenfeldt N (2008) Vorläufige Aussagen zu Energieholzflä¬chen aus tierökologischer Sicht. Arch Forstwesen Landschaftsökol 42:83–87Google Scholar
  103. Scott DF, Lesch W (1997) Streamflow responses to afforestation with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula and to felling in the Mokobulaan experimental catchments, South Africa.J Hydrol 199:360–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Seiler JR, Johnson JD (1988) Physiological and morphological responses of three half-sib families of loblolly pine to water stress conditioning. For Sci 34:487–495Google Scholar
  105. Sidle RC, Ziegler AD, Negishi JN et al (2006) Erosion processes in steep terrain – truths, myths, and uncertainties related to forest management in Southeast Asia. For Ecol Manage 224:199–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsakaldimi M, Zagas T, Tsitsoni T, Ganatsas P (2005) Root morphology, stem growth and field performance of seedlings of two Mediterranean evergreen oaks species raised in different container types. Plant Soil 278:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. v. Wilpert K (2008) Waldbauliche Steuerungsmöglichkeiten des Stoffhaushalts von Waldökosystemen am Beispiel von Buchen- und Fichtenvarianten der Conventwald-Fallstudie. Schriftenreihe Freiburger Forstl. Forschung 40Google Scholar
  108. v. Wilpert K, Zirlewagen D, Kohler M (2000) To what extent can silviculture enhance sustainability of forest sites under the immission regime in Central Europe? Water Air Soil Pollut 122:105–120Google Scholar
  109. Van den Driessche R (1991) Influence of container nursery regimes on drought resistance of seedlings following planting. I. Survival and growth. Can J For Res 21:555–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Van der Salm C, Van der Gon HD, Wieggers R, Bleeker A, Van den Toorn A (2006) The effect of afforestation on water recharge and nitrogen leaching in The Netherlands. For Ecol Manage 221:170–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van Dijk AIJM, Keenan RJ (2007) Planted forests and water in perspective. For Ecol Manage 251:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Van Dijk AUM, Hairsine PB, Pena Arancibia J et al (2007) Reforestation, water availability and stream salinity: a multi-scale analysis in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. For Ecol Manage 251:94–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Varelides C, Kritikos T (1995) Effect of site preparation intensity and fertilization on Pinus pinaster survival and height growth on three sites in northern Greece. For Ecol Manage 73:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Waterloo MJ, Schellekens J, Bruijnzeel LA et al (2007) Changes in catchment runoff after harvesting and burning of a Pinus caribaea plantation in Viti Levu, Fiji. For Ecol Manage 251:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wattenbach M, Zebisch M, Hattermann F, Gottschalk P, Goemann H, Kreins P, Badeck F, Lasch P, Suckow F, Wechsung F (2007) Hydrological impact assessment of afforestation and change in tree-species composition: a regional case study for the Federal State of Brandenburg (Germany). J Hydrolog 346:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Webb DP, von Althen FW (1980) Storage of hardwood planting stock: effects of various storage regimes and packaging methods on root growth and physiological quality. N Z J For Sci 10:83–96Google Scholar
  117. Weis W, Rotter V, Göttlein A (2006) Water and element fluxes during the regeneration of Norway spruce with European beech: effects of shelterwood-cut and clear-cut. For Ecol Manage 224:304–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Williard KWJ, Dewalle DR, Edwards PJ (2005) Influence of bedrock geology and tree species composition on stream nitrate concentrations in Mid-Appalachian forested watersheds. Water Air Soil Pollut 160:55–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. World Resources Institute (2008) http://www.wri.org/. Accessed 10 Jan 2009
  120. World Resources Institute (2008) Forest Landscapes Initiative. http://www.wri.org/project/global-forest-watch.Accessed09Sep2010
  121. Zhang L, Dawes WR, Walker GR (2001) Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale. Water Resour Res 37:701–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhang L, Vertessy R, Walker G et al (2007) Afforestation in a catchment context. Understanding the impacts on water yield and salinity. Industry report 01/07. CSIRO Land and water science report number 01/07Google Scholar
  123. Zlatanov T (2006) Perspectives for sustainable management of the forests in Lesnovska river basin. J Balkan Ecol 9:125–130Google Scholar
  124. Zlatanov T, Hinkov G (2005) An ecological approach for transformation of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) plantations on the south slopes of the Middle Balkan Range. Ecol Eng Environ Prot 4:58–62 (in Bulgarian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yannis Raftoyannis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael Bredemeier
    • 2
  • Rasa Buozyte
    • 3
  • Norbert Lamersdorf
    • 4
  • Andreas Mavrogiakoumos
    • 5
  • Edda Oddsdóttir
    • 6
  • Ivaylo Velichkov
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Environmental ManagementKarpenisiGreece
  2. 2.Forest Ecosystems Research CentreUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of EcologyLithuania Forest Research InstituteGirionys, Kaunas distrLithuania
  4. 4.Department of Pedology of the Temperate Regions, Buesgen InstituteUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  5. 5.Forestry DepartmentCyprus Forestry CollegeLimassolCyprus
  6. 6.Icelandic Forest ResearchReykjavikIceland
  7. 7.Department of SilvicultureInstitute of Forestry, Bulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Personalised recommendations