# Introduction

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## Abstract

The emergent perspective described in Chapter 4 serves to orient the analysis of the teacher’s and students’ actions and interactions in particular mathematics classrooms. As noted in Chapter 4, this framework was developed while analyzing the data generated in the course of two year-long classroom design experiments (an initial experiment conducted with Erna Yackel and Terry Wood in Graceann Merkel’s second-grade classroom in a rural suburban school, and a follow-up experiment that Erna Yackel conducted in Willie King’s second-grade classroom in an urban school). One of the key characteristics of design research is that instructional design and research are interdependent. Current descriptions of the methodology emphasize that the design of classroom learning environments serves as the context for research and, conversely, ongoing and retrospective analyses are conducted in order to inform the improvement of the design. It is fair to say that our primary focus while conducting the design experiment in Merkel’s classroom was on the research aspect of design research – on attempting to understand what was going on in the classrooms in which we worked. To be sure, Yackel, Wood, and I developed a complete set of instructional activities for second-grade mathematics. However, our motivation for doing so was pragmatic: instructional activities were a means to the end of supporting the forms of mathematical learning that we wanted to study given our view about what was worth knowing and doing mathematically.

## Keywords

Instructional Design Mathematical Learning Instructional Activity Learning Trajectory Classroom Learning Environment## References

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