Advertisement

Distribution, History and Biogeography of the Neochanna Mudfishes

  • R. M. McDowall
Chapter
Part of the Fish & Fisheries Series book series (FIFI, volume 32)

Abstract

Five species of Neochanna mudfish are nondiadromous derivatives of the diadromous Tasmanian mudfish. The New Zealand species are widespread from far Northland to the eastern central South Island. They are in general allopatric, though two species are found in close proximity in northern latitudes. They are all found in wetlands, often in debris-filled habitats and have distinctive specialisations that adapt them to living in such places. They are capable of aestivation when aquatic habitats dry up. Brown mudfish is present on both sides of Cook Strait, probably a direct consequence of land connections across the strait at times of lowered sea levels in the Pleistocene. Absence of brown mudfish from South Westland reflects Pleistocene glaciation there. A mudfish species on the Chatham Islands, east of mainland New Zealand, is the only non-diadromous species on the island, and its presence there must post-date the emergence of the islands from marine submergence, believed to have been late in the Cenozoic.

Keywords

Aestivation Chatham Islands Land bridges Mudfishes Neochanna Pleistocene 

References

  1. Brook FJ (1999) Stratigraphy and landsnail faunas of Late Holocene coastal dunes, Tokerau Beach, northern New Zealand. J R Soc N Z 29:337–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cadwallader PL (1975) Distribution and ecology of the Canterbury mudfish, Neochanna burrowsius (Phillipps) (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). J R Soc N Z 5:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campbell HJ, Hutching G (2007) In search of ancient New Zealand. Penguin, Auckland, N Z, 238 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell HJ, Andrews P, Beu AG (1993) Cretaceous-Cenozoic geology and biostratigraphy of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. N Z Inst Geol Nucl Sci Monog 2:1–269Google Scholar
  5. Campbell HJ, Begg J, Beu A, Carter B, Curtis N, Davies G, Emberson R, Given D, Goldberg J, Holt K, Hoernli K, Malahoff A, Mildenhall D, Landis C, Paterson A, Trewick S (2009) Geological considerations relating to the Chatham Islands, mainland New Zealand and the history of New Zealand terrestrial life. Geology and Genes IV. Geol Soc N Z Misc Publ 126:5–6Google Scholar
  6. Craw D, Norris R (2003) Landforms. In: Darby J, Fordyce RE, Mark A, Probert K, Townsend C (eds) The natural history of southern New Zealand. University of Otago Press, Dunedin, N Z, pp 17–34Google Scholar
  7. Davey ML, O’Brien L, Ling N, Gleeson DM (2003) Population genetic structure of the Canterbury mudfish (Neochanna burrowsius): biogeography and conservation implications. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 37:14–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eldon GA (1968) Notes on the presence of the brown mudfish (Neochanna apoda Günther) on the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 2:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eldon GA (1978) The life history of Neochanna apoda Günther (Pisces: Galaxiidae). N Z Min Agric Fish, Fish Res Bull 19:1–44Google Scholar
  10. Eldon GA (1979a) Habitat and interspecific relationships of the Canterbury mudfish, Neochanna burrowsius (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 13:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eldon GA (1979b) Breeding, growth and aestivation of the Canterbury mudfish, Neochanna burrowsius (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 13:331–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eldon GA, Howden PJ, Howden DB (1978) Reduction of a population of Canterbury mudfish Neochanna burrowsius (Galaxiidae) by drought. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 12:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eyles RJ, McConchie JA (1992) Wellington. In: Soons JM, Selby MJ (eds) Landforms of New Zealand. Longman Paul, Auckland, N Z, pp 382–406Google Scholar
  14. Fleming CA (1979) The geological history of New Zealand and its life. Auckland University Press, Auckland, N Z, 141 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Fulton W (1986) The Tasmanian mudfish, Galaxias cleaveri. Fish Sahul 4:150–151Google Scholar
  16. Gleeson DM, Howitt RLJ, Ling N (1998) Phylogeography of the black mudfish, Neochanna diversus (Galaxiidae). Geol Soc N Z Misc Publ 97:27–30Google Scholar
  17. Gleeson DM, Howitt RLJ, Ling N (1999) Genetic variation, population structure and cryptic species within the black mudfish, Neochanna diversus, an endemic galaxiid from New Zealand. Mol Ecol 8:47–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kamp JJ (1992) Landforms of Wairarapa: a geological perspective. Wellington. In: Soons JM, Selby MJ (eds) Landforms of New Zealand. N Z, Longman Paul, Auckland, pp 367–381Google Scholar
  19. Lewis K, Carter L (1994) When and how did Cook Strait form? In: van der Lingen GJ, Swanson KM, Muir RJ (eds) Evolution of the Tasman Sea basin: Proceedings of the Tasman Sea ­conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 27–30 November, 1992 Balkema. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp 119–137Google Scholar
  20. Lewis KB, Carter L, Davey FJ (1994) The opening of Cook Strait: interglacial tidal scour and aligning basins at a subduction to transform plate edge. Mar Geol 116:293–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ling N, Gleeson DM (2001) A new species of mudfish, Neochanna (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) from northern New Zealand. J R Soc N Z 31:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ling N, Gleeson DM, Willis KJ, Binzegger SU (2001) Creating and destroying species; the ‘new’ biodiversity and evolutionary significant units among New Zealand’s galaxiid fishes. J Fish Biol 59(Suppl A):209–222Google Scholar
  23. McDowall RM (1990) New Zealand freshwater fishes: a natural history and guide. Heinemann Reed, Auckland, N Z, 553 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. McDowall RM (1996) Volcanism and freshwater fish biogeography in the northeastern North Island of New Zealand. J Biogeogr 23:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McDowall RM (1997) Affinities, generic classification, and biogeography of the Australian and New Zealand mudfishes (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). Rec Aust Mus 49:121–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McDowall RM (1998) Once were wetlands. Fish Game N Z 20:31–39Google Scholar
  27. McDowall RM (1999) Just hanging around for some fresh air thanks! Survival adaptations of the mudfish. Water Atmos 7(2):7–8Google Scholar
  28. McDowall RM (2004) The Chatham Islands endemic galaxiid: a Neochanna mudfish (Teleostei: Galaxiidae). J R Soc N Z 34:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McGlone MS (1985) Plant biogeography and the late Cenozoic history of New Zealand. N Z J Bot 23:723–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meredith AS, Davie PS, Forster ME (1982) Oxygen uptake by the skin of the Canterbury mudfish, Neochanna burrowsius. N Z J Zool 9:387–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neall V (1992) Landforms of Taranaki and the Wanganui lowlands. In: Soons JM, Selby MJ (eds) Landforms of New Zealand. Longman Paul, Auckland, N Z, pp 287–307Google Scholar
  32. Newnham RM, Lowe DJ, Williams PW (1999) Quaternary environmental change in New Zealand: a review. Prog Phys Geog 23:567–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Brien LK (2007) Size dependent strategies in response to diet by Neochanna burrowsius. N Z Nat Sci 32:21–28Google Scholar
  34. O’Brien LK, Dunn N (2005) Captive management of mudfish Neochanna (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) spp. N Z Dep Cons Res Devel Ser 205:1–29Google Scholar
  35. O’Brien LK, Dunn N (2007) Mudfish (Neochanna: Galaxiidae) literature review. Sci Conserv 277:1–89Google Scholar
  36. Skrzynski W (1968) The Canterbury mudfish, Galaxias burrowsius - a vanishing species. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 2:688–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Soons JM (1992) The West Coast of the South Island. In: Soons JM, Selby MJ (eds) Landforms of New Zealand. Longman Paul, Auckland, N Z, pp 439–455Google Scholar
  38. Stokell G (1949) The systematic arrangement of the New Zealand Galaxiidae. Part II. Species classification. Trans R Soc N Z 77:472–496Google Scholar
  39. Stokell G (1955) Freshwater fishes of New Zealand. Simpson & Williams, Christchurch, N Z, 145 ppGoogle Scholar
  40. Waters JM, McDowall RM (2005) Phylogenetics of the Australasian mudfishes: evolution of an eel-like body plan. Mol Phyl Evol 37:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Waters JM, White RWG (1997) Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Tasmanian and New Zealand mudfishes (Salmoniformes: Galaxiidae). Aust J Zool 45:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Whitehouse IE, Pearce AJ (1992) Shaping the mountains of New Zealand. In: Soons JM, Selby MJ (eds) Landforms of New Zealand. Longman Paul, Auckland, N Z, pp 144–160Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Water and Atmospheric ResearchChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations