Advertisement

Interaction Between Environmental Pollution and Land-Cover/Land-Use Change in Arctic Areas

  • John Derome†
  • Natalia Lukina
Chapter

Abstract

Climate change in the Arctic is taking place within the context of a wide range of other changes and disturbances including environmental pollution. During the past two centuries climatic change in the region has been accompanied by the added complexity of anthropogenic pollutants. This chapter deals with the interactions between climate change and environmental pollution generated in the Arctic, as well as that originating from outside the region, and the effects of these interactions on changes in land cover and land use in the Arctic. The main sources of pollutants and their effects are discussed. Heavy metal, SO2 and sulphate deposition originating from non-ferrous metal smelting and mining activities in the region are the main threat to the prevailing land cover. Increasing mercury and POP pollution in the Arctic poses a considerable threat to animal life in the region, and therefore also indirectly may have long-term effects on the land cover. Environmental pollution originating from oil and gas exploration and extraction activities in the Arctic is expected to increase considerably in the Eurasian Arctic. Forest fires also cause tremendous short- and long-term changes in the land cover in the Arctic. The chapter discusses how global warming may aggravate the effects of environmental pollution on land cover, and how pollutants may amplify climatic stress.

Keywords

Heavy Metal Land Cover Black Carbon Petroleum Hydrocarbon Kola Peninsula 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aarrestad P-A, Bakkestuen V, Gytarsky M, Hartikainen M, Karaban R, Korotkov V, Kuzmicheva V, Salemaa M, Vassilieva N (2008) Ground vegetation. In: Derome J, Myking T, Aarrestad P-A (eds) Current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the Joint Norwegian, Russian and Finnish border area in Northern Fennoscandia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 85:1–98Google Scholar
  2. ACIA (2004) Impacts of a warming Arctic. Arctic climate impact assessment overview report. In: Hassol SJ (ed). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 144 pGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcamo J, Mayerhofer P, Guardans R, van Harmelen T, van Minnen J, Onigkeit J, Posch M, de Vries B (2002) An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project. Environ Sci Policy 5:257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. AMAP (1998) AMAP assessment report: Arctic pollution issues. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  5. AMAP (2003) AMAP assessment 2002: the influence of global change on contaminant pathways to, within, and from the Arctic. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  6. AMAP (2004) AMAP assessment 2002: persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  7. AMAP (2005) AMAP assessment 2002: heavy metals in the Arctic. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  8. AMAP (2006) AMAP assessment 2006: acidifying pollutants, arctic haze and acidification in the Arctic. Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  9. Amiro B, Todd J, Wotton B, Logan K, Flannigan M, Stocks B, Mason J, Martell D, Hirsch K (2001) Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999. Can J For Res 31:512–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arctic Oil and Gas 2007 (2007) Arctic monitoring and assessment programme (AMAP), OsloGoogle Scholar
  11. Äyräs M, Niskavaara H, Bogatyrev I, Chekushin V, Pavlov V, de Caritat P, Halleraker J, Finne T, Kashulina G, Reimann C (1997) Regional patterns of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) and sulphur in terrestrial moss samples as indication of airborne pollution in a 188,000 km2 area in northern Finland, Norway and Russia. J Geochem Explor 58:269–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baldocchi D, Kelliher F, Black T, Jarvis P (2000) Climate and vegetation controls on boreal zone energy exchange. Glob Change Biol 6:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bets A, Ball J (1997) Albedo over the boreal forest. J Geophys Res – Atmos 102:28901–28909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boutron C, Candelone J-P, Hong S (1995) Greenland snow and ice cores: unique archives of large-scale pollution of the troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere by lead and other heavy metals. Sci Tot Environ 160/161:233–241Google Scholar
  15. Boutron C, Vandal G, Fitzgerald W, Ferrari C (1998) A 40 year record of mercury in central Greenland snow. Geophys Res Lett 25:3315–3318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chapin F, McGuire A, Randerson J, Pielke R, Baldocchi D, Hobbie S, Roulet N, Eugster W, Kasischke E, Rastetter E, Zimov S, Oechel W, Running S (2000) Feedbacks from arctic and boreal ecosystems to climate. Glob Change Biol 6:211–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Derome J, Lindroos A-J (1998) Effects of heavy metal contamination on macronutrient availability and acidification parameters in forest soil in the vicinity of the Harjavalta Cu–Ni smelter, SW Finland. Environ Pollut 99:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Derome J, Lindroos A-J, Niska K (1998) Effects of SO2 and heavy metal emissions from the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, on soil acidity parameters in NW Russia and Finnish Lapland. Scandinavian J For Res 13(4):421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Evdokimova GA (2000) The impact of heavy metals on the microbial diversity of podzolic soils in the Kola Peninsula. In: Innes J, Oleksyn J (eds) Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions. Report of the International Union of Forest Reseach Organizations (IUFRO) Task Force on Environmental Change 1, CAB International, UK, 67–76Google Scholar
  20. Fritze H, Niini S, Mikkola K, Mäkinen A (1989) Soil microbial effects of a Cu-Ni smelter in southwestern Finland. Biol Fertil Soils 8:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fritze H, Pennanen T, Haini J, Siira-Pietikainen A, Vanhala P (2000) Effects of heavy metals on soil mircoflora. In: Mälkönen E (ed) Forest condition in a changing environment – the Finnish case. Forestry Sciences 65, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 260–265Google Scholar
  22. Goulden M, Wofsy S, Harden J, Trumbore S, Crill P, Gower S, Fries T, Daube B, Fan, S-M, Sutton D, Bazzaz A, Munger J (1998) Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279:214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gregor D, Peters A, Teixeira C, Jones N, Spencer C (1995) The historical residue trend of PCBs in the Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada. Sci Total Environ 160/161:117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall F (1999) Introduction to special section: BOREAS in 1999 Experimental and science perspective. J Geophys Res 104:27627–27639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hall F (2001) Introduction to special section: BOREAS III experimental and science perspective. J Geophys Res 106:33511–33516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helmisaari H-S, Makkonen K, Olsson M, Viksna A, Mälkönen E (1999) Fine root growth, mortality and heavy metal concentrations in limed and fertilized Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter in SW Finland. Plant Soil 209:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hong S, Candelone J-P, Patterson C, Boutron C (1994) Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations. Science 265:1841–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IPCC (2002) The third assessment. Intergovernmental panel on climate change. http://www.ipcc.ch/
  29. Isaev A, Korovin G (2003) Large-scale changes in the Eurasian boreal forests and methods for their assessment with using satellite information. Lesovedenie 2:3–9Google Scholar
  30. Isaeva L, Poikolainen J, Myking T, Derome J, Sukharev T, Rautio P (2008) Element concentrations in plants. In: Derome J, Myking T, Aarrestad P-A (eds) Current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the Joint Norwegian, Russian and Finnish border area in Northern Fennoscandia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 85:1–98Google Scholar
  31. Isaksson E, Hermanson M, Hicks S, Igarashi M, Kamiyama K, Moore J, Motoyama H, Muir D, Pohjola V, Vaikmae R, van de Wal RSW, Watanabe O (2003) Ice cores from Svalbard – useful archives of past climate and pollution history. Phys Chem Earth 28:1217–1228Google Scholar
  32. Johansson K, Bergback B, Tyler G (2001) Impact of atmospheric long range transport of lead, mercury and cadmium on the Swedish forest environment. Water Air Soil Pollut: Focus 1:279–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kasischke E, Rupp T, Verbyla D (2003) Fire trends in the Alaskan boreal forest region. In: Chapin F III, Oswood M, van Cleve K, Viereck L, Verbyla D (eds) Alaska’s changing boreal forest. Oxford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Kharuk V, Winterberger K, Tzibulsky G, Yahimovich A, Moroz S (1996) Pollution induced damage of Norilsk valley forests. Ecologiya 6:424–430Google Scholar
  35. Kim Y, Hatsushika H, Muskett R, Yamazaki K (2005) Possible effect of boreal wildfire soot on Arctic sea ice and Alaska glaciers. Atmospheric Environ 39:3513–3520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kozlov M (1997) Pollution impact on insect biodiversity in boreal forests: evaluation of effects and perspectives of recovery. In: Crawford R (ed) Disturbance and recovery in Arctic Lands: an ecological perspective. Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop on disturbance and recovery of arctic terrestrial ecosystems, Rovaniemi. NATO ASI series. Partnership sub-series 2. Environment 25. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  37. Kozlov M, Whitworth T (2002) Population densities and diversity of Calliphoridae (Diptera) around a nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, Northwestern Russia. Entomologica Fennica 13:98–104Google Scholar
  38. Kozlov M, Zvereva E (2007) Industrial barrens: extreme habitats created by non-ferrous metallurgy. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 6:233–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kruychkov V, Syroid N (1979) Changes of the Kola North ecosystems subjected to anthropogenic activity, III Symposium Biological Problems of the North, Apatity, 39–42Google Scholar
  40. Lindberg S, Brooks S, Lin C-J, Scott K, Landis M, Stevens R, Goodsite M, Richter A (2002) The dynamic oxidation of gaseous mercury in the Arctic troposphere at polar sunrise. Environ Sci Technol 36:1245–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lukina N, Chernenkova T (2008) Pollution-induced successions in the Kola peninsula forests. Russian J Ecol 4:1–9Google Scholar
  42. Lukina N, Liseenko L, Belova E (1993) Pollution-induced changes in the vegetation cover of spruce and pine ecosystems in the Kola North region. In: Kozlov M, Haukioja E, Yarmishko V (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on aerial pollution in Kola Peninsula, 14–16 April, St. PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  43. Lukina N, Nikonov V (1995) Acidity of podzolic soils subjected to sulphur pollution near a Cu-Ni smelter at the KolaPeninsula. Water Air Soil Pollut 85:1057–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lukina N, Nikonov V (1996) Biogeochemical cycles in the northern forest ecosystems subjected to air pollution, Part 1, 2. Kola Science Centre RAS, Apatity, 410 pGoogle Scholar
  45. Lukina N, Sukhareva T, Isaeva L (2005) Pollution-induced digressions and demutation successions in northern taiga forests. Nauka, Moscow, 245 pGoogle Scholar
  46. Manninen S, Huttunen S, Perämäki P (1998) Effect of ambient SO2 levels on S fractions in Pinus sylvestris foliage growing in the subarctic. Scandinavian J For Res 13:306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Masclet P, Hoyau V, Jaffrezo J, Cachier H (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition on the ice sheet of Greenland. Part 1: Superficial snow. Atmos Environ 34:3195–3207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGuire A, Chapin FS III (2003) Climate feedbacks. In: Alaska’s Changing Boreal Forest. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. McGuire A, Hobbie J (1997) Global climate change and the equilibrium responses of carbon storage in arctic and subarctic regions. In: Modeling the Arctic system: a workshop report of the Arctic system science programe. Arctic Research Consortium of the US, Fairbanks, 53–54Google Scholar
  50. McGuire A, Melillo J, Kicklighter D, Pan Y, Xiao X, Helfrich J, Moore B III, Vorosmarty C, Schloss A (1997) Equilibrium responses of global net primary production and carbon storage to doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide: Sensitivity to changes in vegetation nitrogen concentration. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 11:173–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McGuire A, Wirth C, Apps M, Beringer J, Clein J, Epstein H, Kicklighter D, Bhatti J, Chapin F III, de Groot B, Efremov D, Eugster W, Fukuda M, Gower T, Hinzman L, Huntley B, Jia G, Kasischke E, Melillo J, Romanovsky V, Shvidenko A, Vaganov E, Walker D (2002) Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water/energy exchange at high latitudes. J Veg Sci 13:301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McGuire A, Apps M, Chapin FS III, Dagraville R, Flannigan M, Kasischke E, Kicklighter D, Kimball J, Kurz W, McRae D, McDonald K, Melilli J, Myneni R, Stocks B, Verbyla D, Zhuang Q (2004) Land cover disturbances and feedbacks to the climate system in Canada and Alaska. In: Gutman G, Janetos A, Justice C, Moran E, Mustard J, Rindfuss R, Skole D, Turner B II, Cochrane M (eds) Land Change Science. Observing, monitoring and understanding trajectories of change on the Earth surface. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 139–163Google Scholar
  53. McLaughlin S, Percy K (1999) Forest health in North America: some perspectives on potential roles of climate and air pollution. Water Air Soil Pollut 116:151–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Melnikov N (1999) About building long-term repository for the solid radioactive wastes on Archipelago Novaya Zemlya. Kola Scientific Centre RAS, Apatity, 1–31Google Scholar
  55. Myking T, Lindgren M, Gytarsky M, Karaban R, Kuzmicheva V (2008) Crown condition. In: Derome J, Myking T, Aarrestad P-A (eds) Current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the Joint Norwegian, Russian and Finnish border area in Northern Fennoscandia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 85:1–98Google Scholar
  56. Nikonov V, Lukina N, Polyanskaya L, Panikova A (2001) Distribution of microorganisms in the Al–Fe–humus podzols of natural and anthropogenically impacted boreal spruce forests. Microbiology 70(3):319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nikonov V, Lukina N, Bezel V, Belsky E, Bespalova A, Golovchenko A, Gorbacheva T, Dobrovolskaya T, Dobrovolsky V, Zukert N, Isaeva L, Lapenis A, Maksimova I, Marfenina O, Panikova A, Pinsky D, Polanskaya L, Steinnes E, Utkin A, Frontasieva M, Tsibulsky V, Chernov I, Yatsenko-Khmelevskaya M (2004) Trace elements in boreal forests. In: Isaev AS (ed), Nauka, Moscow, pp 1–616Google Scholar
  58. Rigina O, Kozlov M (1998) Pollution impact on sub-Arctic forests in the Kola peninsula, Russia. In: Impacts and amelioration of air pollution in heavily polluted regions. IUFRO, The Task Force on Environmental ChangeGoogle Scholar
  59. Rosman K, Chisholm W, Hong S, Candelone J-P, Boutron C (1997) Lead from Carthaginian and Roman Spanish mines isotopically identified in Greenland ice dated from 600 BC to 300 A.D. Environ Sci Technol 31:3413–3416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sellers P, Hall F, Kelly R, Black A, Baldocchi D, Berry J, Ryan M, Ranson K, Crill P, Lattenmaier D, Margolis H, Cihlar J, Newcomer J, Fitzjarrald D, Jarvis P, Gower S, Halliwell D, Williams D, Goodison B, Wickland D, Guertin F (1997) BOREAS in 1997 experiment overview, scientific results and future directions. J Geophys Res 102:28731–28769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shvidenko A, Goldhammer J (2001) Fire situation in Russia. Int Fire News 23:49–65Google Scholar
  62. Shvidenko A, Nilsson S (2000) Fire and carbon budget of Russian forests. In: Kasischke E, Stocks B (eds) Ecological studies 138 – fire, climate change and carbon cycling in the Boreal Forests. Springer, New York, pp 289–311Google Scholar
  63. Simonich S, Hites R (1994) Importance of vegetation in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the atmosphere. Nature 370:49–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Steinnes E, Lukina N, Nikonov V, Aamlid D, Royset O (2000) A gradient study of 34 elements in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter in the Kola Peninsula. Environ Monitor Assess 60:71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stocks B, Fosberg M, Lynham T, Mearns L, Wotton B, Yang Q, Jin J-Z, Lawrence K, Hartley G, Mason J, McKenny D (1998) Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian boreal forests. Clim Change 38:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sturm M, McFaden J, Liston G, Chapin I, Holmgren J, Walker M (2001) Snow-shrub interactions in Arctic tundra: a hypothesis with climatic implications. J Climate 14:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tömmervik H (2008) Satellite imagery. In: Derome J, Myking T, Aarrestad P-A (eds) Current state of terrestrial ecosystems in the Joint Norwegian, Russian and Finnish border area in Northern Fennoscandia. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 85:1–98Google Scholar
  68. Tømmervik, H., Høgda, K.A, Solheim I (2003) Monitoring vegetation changes in Pasvik (Norway) and Pechenga in Kola Peninsula (Russia) using multi-temporal Landsat MSS/TM data. Rem Sens Environ 85:370–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tuovinen JP, Laurila T, Lattila H, Ryaboshapko A, Brukhanov P, Korolev S (1993) Impact of the sulphur dioxide sources in the Kola peninsula on air quality in Nothernmost Europe. Atmos Environ 27A:1379–1395Google Scholar
  70. Wania F, McLachlan M (2001) Estimating the influence of forests on the overall fate of semivolatile organic compounds using a multimedia fate model. Environ Sci Technol 35:582–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wotawa G, Novelli P, Trainer M, Granier C (2001) Interannual variability of summertime CO concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere explained by boreal forest fires in North America and Russia. Geophys Res Lett 28:4575–4578CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rovaniemi Research UnitFinnish Forest Research InstituteRovaniemiFinland
  2. 2.Centre for Forest Ecology and Productivity RASMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations