Advertisement

Ethics and Non-ethics

  • Barbara MaierEmail author
  • Warren A. Shibles†
Chapter
Part of the International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine book series (LIME, volume 47)

Abstract

A distinction is made between morals and ethics. Morals are not critical, but enculturated, more like learned habits or rules than thought out behavior. Ethics is a critical examination of morals and cultural practices. The medical system of a culture is also based on such morals. Common morality is basically self-contradictory. There is ignored moral inconsistency and searched ethical consistency. According to the ethics versus moral view, something can be moral, but unethical; immoral, but ethical; both immoral and unethical; both moral (by chance) and ethical (by reason). As to suggestions for a specific ethical theory, which is consequentialistic and combines the scientific basis of medicine with the philosophy of medicine one may recommend a naturalistic, humanistic theory of ethics. It also benefits from the philosophy of science and pragmatic Philosophical Practice.

Keywords

Culture enculturation ethics morals non-ethical Naturalistic Theory of Ethics Humanism ethical terms misuse of ethical terms universalization 

References

  1. 1.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik. Beck’sche Reihe, München: 338: Mit drei Gegnern hat sich die Ethik auseinanderzusetzen: mit der Gedankenlosigkeit, mit der egoistischen Selbstbehauptung und mit der Gesellschaft. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plato, Apology 38a: Hamilton, E., Cirnes, H. eds. 1961. The collected dialogues of Plato. New York: Bollingen.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    BMI. 2004. Medical ethics today: The BMAs handbook of ethics and law, 2nd edn, 651–652. London: BMI.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BMI. 2004. Medical ethics today: The BMAs handbook of ethics and law, 2nd edn, 16. London: BMI.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heidegger, M. orig.1951/52/1992. Was heißt Denken? Reclam, Stuttgart: 3: In das, was denken heißt, gelangen wir, wenn wir selber denken. Damit ein solcher Versuch glückt, müssen wir bereit sein, das Denken zu lernen. cf. Maier, B. 2003. Vertrautes und Fremdes in ethischer Perspektive. Zwei wert- und emotionsgeladene moralische Begriffe. In Psychosomatische Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Beiträge der Jahrestagung 2002 der DGPFG, 291–296. Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dewey, J. 1939. Theory of valuation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rorty, R. 1989. Contingency, irony and solidarity. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dewey, J., and Tufts, J. 1908/1932 rev. Holt, H. Ethics. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nietzsche, F. 1967. The will to power, 221. (Kaufmann, W., and Hollingdale, R. trs. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dewey, J. 1939. Theory of valuation, 29. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mead, G.H. 1934/1977. On social psychology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nietzsche, F. 1895–1901. Gesamtausgabe in Grossoktav. In A Nietzsche reader, vol 1–15, ed. Naumann, C., Leipzig, G., and Nietzsche, F.. Tr. Hollingdale, R.J. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik. Beck’sche Reihe, München. Schweitzer’s thought is radically individualistic and critical of society. Der Zusammenbruch der Kultur ist dadurch gekommen, dass man der Gesellschaft die Ethik überließ. Erneuerung der Kultur ist nur dadurch möglich, dass die Ethik wieder die Sache der denkenden Menschen wird, und dass die Einzelnen sich in der Gesellschaft als ethische Persönlichkeiten zu behaupten suchen“(351f) cf. Maier, B. (2003). Vertrautes und Fremdes in ethischer Perspektive. Zwei wert- und emotionsgeladene moralische Begriffe. In: Psychosomatische Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Beiträge der Jahrestagung 2002 der DGPFG, 291–296. Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Medical Ethics Manual. 2005. World medical association, 12. France: Ferney-Voltaire Cedex.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Medical Ethics Manual. 2005. World medical association, 26. France: Ferney-Voltaire Cedex.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Medical Association. 2001. AMA Principles of Medical Ethics. Adopted by the AMA´s House of Delegates, June 17th, 2001.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    National Institute for Illiteracy. 2000. nifl.gov/reders/lintro.htm#D.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dewey, J., and Tufts, J. 1908/1932. Ethics. rev. Holt, H., 288. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    bcm.edu/ethics/phd.htm.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shibles, W. 1995. Analysis of the definitions of Humanism. Scottish Journal of Religious Studies 16:51–61.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fletcher, J. 1979. Humanhood: Essays in biomedical ethics, 18. New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pellegrino, E. 1979. Humanism and the physician, XI. Knoxville TN: University of Tenessee Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Elliott, C. 1999. Bioethics, culture and identity: A philosophical disease. New York: Routledge; Elliott, C. ed. 2001. Slow cures and bad philosophers. Essays on Wittgenstein, medicine and bioethics. Durham: Duke University Press; Elliott, C. 2003. Better than well: American medicine meets the American dream. New York: W Norton.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shibles, W. 1995. Emotion in aesthetics. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; Shibles, W. 1995. Unsere Gefühlswelt. Mainz: Lermann Verlag; cf. Shibles, W. 1995. Analysis of the definitions of Humanism. Scottish Journal of Religious Studies 16:51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shibles, W. 1994. The cognitive-emotive theory of desire. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 11:25–40.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dewey, J. 1939. Theory of valuation, 29. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shibles, W. 1980. Ethics as a science: Going from is to ought. Iowa Science Teachers Journal 3:26–32.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    See Edwards, P. 1967. “Naturalistic fallacy” and “G.E. Moore”. Encyclopedia of philosophy. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Molewijk, B. 2004. Integrated empirical ethics: In search for clarifying identities. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7:85–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Davies, L., and Hudson, L. 1999. Why don’t physicians use ethics consultation? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10:116–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davies, L., and Hudson, L. 1999. Why don’t physicians use ethics consultation? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10:119.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Davies, L., and Hudson, L. 1999. Why don’t physicians use ethics consultation? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10:121 my italics. Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davies, L., and Hudson, L. 1999. Why don’t physicians use ethics consultation? Journal of Clinical Ethics 10:122.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Singer, P. 2002. One world: The ethics of globalization, 63. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Robinson, R. 1964. Atheists values, 130. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dewey, J. 1934. A common faith, 26. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Savulescu, J. 1998. Two worlds apart: Religion and ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 24:382–384, esp. 383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Singer, P. 2004. The president of Good and Evil, 3. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bartley, W. 1973. III. Wittgenstein, 64. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rachels, J. 2001. Killing and letting die. In Encyclopedia of ethics, 2nd edn, vol 2, 947–950, esp. 948. Routledge, London: Lawrence and Becker.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCormick, R. 1984. Health and medicine in the catholic tradition: Tradition in transition. New York: Crossroad.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rorty, R. 1989. Contingency, irony and solidarity, 8. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beauchamp, T., and Walters, L. eds. 1999. Contemporary issues in bioethics, 5th edn, 11. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    McMahan, J. 2002. The ethics of killing: Problems at the margins of life, 190. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Glannon, W. 2005. Biomedical ethics, 160. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krantz, S. 2002. Refuting Peter Singers ethical theory: The importance of human dignity, 39. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Krantz, S. 2002. Refuting Peter Singers ethical theory: The importance of human dignity, 38. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Singer, P. 2000. Extending ethics beyond our own species. In Bioethics and the law, vol I, 133–142, esp.140. eds. Kemp, P., Rendtorff, J., and Johansen, N. Copenhagen: Rhodes International Science and Art Publications and Centre for Ethics and Law.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dworkin, R. 1977. Taking rights seriously. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kant, I. 1785/1998. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. Weischedel, W. 14th edn. Werkausgabe vol 7, Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, Frankfurt am Main; Kant, I. 1785/1998. In Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. ed. Gregor, M. New York: Cambridge University Press; O’Neill, O. 1989. Constructions of reason: Explorations of Kants practical philosophy, 126. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fletcher, J. 1979. Humanhood: Essays in biomedical ethics, 32–33. New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    cf. Shibles, W. 1980. Morality in moral education. Curriculum Review 19:234–236; Shibles, W. 1980. Ethics as a science: Going from is to ought. Iowa Science Teachers Journal 3:26–32.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wood, A. 1999. Kants ethical thought, 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; cf. Orig. Kant, I. 1785/1998. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. Weischedel W 14th edn. Werkausgabe vol 7 Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 1, 2. BA: Frankfurt am Main; Kant, I. 1785/1998. In Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. ed. Gregor, M. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kant, I. 1785/1998. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. Weischedel, W. 14th edn. Werkausgabe vol 7 Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, Frankfurt am Main; G 4: 404–405; Kant, I. 1785/1998. In Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. ed. Gregor, M. New York: Cambridge University Press; Wood, A. 1999. Kants ethical thought, 23. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kant, I. 1785/1998. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. In Werkausgabe vol 7 Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 14th edn, 52. ed. Weischedel, W. BA: Frankfurt am Main; Kant, I. 1785/1998. In Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. ed. Gregor, M. New York: Cambridge University Press; Kant, I. 1785/1998. Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. In Werkausgabe vol 7, Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 14th edn, 140. ed. Weischedel, W. BA: Frankfurt am Main; Kant, I. 1788/1997. Critique of practical reason. Gregor, M. tr, New York: Cambridge University Press; O’Neill, O. 1989. Constructions of reason: Explorations of Kants Practical Philosophy, 126. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    O’Neill, O. 1989. Constructions of reason: Explorations of Kants practical philosophy, 41. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Kant, I. 1785/1998. Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. In Werkausgabe vol 7 Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft, 14th edn, 1, 2. ed. Weischedel, W. BA: Frankfurt am Main; Kant, I. 1785/1998. In Groundwork of the metaphysics of morals. ed. Gregor, M. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wood, A. 1999. Kants ethical thought, 327. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wood, A. 1999. Kants ethical thought, 334. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cassirer, E. 1953–1957. The philosophy of symbolic forms. 3 vols tr. Manheim, R. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wittgenstein, L. 1958. Philosophical investigations, 3rd edn. Anscombe E tr, revised. 2002. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Carse, T. in: Gordon, S., Benner, P., and Noddings, N. eds. 1996. Caregiving: Readings in knowledge, practice, ethics and politics, 88. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pellegrino, E. 1979. Humanism and the physician, 89. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fletcher, J. 1979. Humanhood: Essays in biomedical ethics, 39. New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    cf Arras, J. 2002. Pragmatism and bioethics: Been there, done that. Social Philosophy and Public Policy 19:29–58, esp. 52–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    BMI. 2004. Medical ethics today: The BMAs handbook of ethics and law, 2nd edn, 240. London: BMI.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kilner, J. 1990. Who lives? Who dies?, 234 New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brown, B., and Singer, P. 1996. The greens, 58. Melbourne: Text Publications.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wittgenstein, L. 1980. Culture and value, 44. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    National Commission Report on Excellence in Education. 72; April 1983.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kline, M. in: Breslow, L. 2002. Encyclopedia of health, 4 vols, I, 305–306 New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kossek, E., and Block, R. 2000. Managing human resources in the 21st century from core concepts to strategic choice, 276. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    See Maier, B. 2003. Das Vertraute und das Fremde in ethischer Perspektive. Das Vertraute und das Fremde als kontextoffene Begriffe. In Psychosomatische Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Beiträge der Jahrestagung 2002 der DGPFG, 291–296. Gießen: Psychosozial Verlag.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik, 338. München: Beck’sche Reihe.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    cf Kopelman, L. 1997. Medicine´s challenge to relativism: the case of female genital mutilation. In Philosophy of medicine and bioethics. eds. Carson, R., and Barnes, C. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dewey, J. 1929/1958. Experience and nature, 322. Dover, New York: Open Court, La Salle.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. eds. 2005. War and public health, IV, 1301–1304. New York: University of Oxford Press.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Some health related organizations which stand for nonviolence are: American Public Health Association, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Physicians for Human Rights, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Amnesty International, etc. The Pentagon budget for 2004 was $400 billion, plus $40 billion a year to be spent on Homeland Security. The Bush administration planned to spend $2.7 trillion on the military over the next 6 years. Add to these costs for the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, eventually over a trillion. The US spent in the region 6% of its GDP on the military in 2003. When one considers all expenses associated with the military this may possibly be doubled to 12%. It may be noted that in 2001, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Oman all spent between 8 and 13% of their GDP on the military. North Korea spends 25% GDP, Democratic Republic of Congo 22%, Eritrea 16%, and Israel 10%. Nations compete to defend themselves against other nations even at the expense of the welfare, health and lives of their citizens. Hundreds of thousands of citizens are being killed. Additionally, in 2005, 45 million people in the U.S. have no health insurance. cf. U.S. Census Bureau).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Moser, R. 1975. An anti-intellectual movement in medicine. Western Journal of Medicine 122:433–449.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Moser, R. 1975. An anti-intellectual movement in medicine. Western Journal of Medicine 122:446.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moser, R. 1975. An anti-intellectual movement in medicine. Western Journal of Medicine 122:449.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Singer, P. 1979/1993. Practical ethics, 2nd edn, 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gordon, S., Benner, P., and Noddings N eds. 1996. Caregiving: readings in knowledge, practice, ethics and politics. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kuhse, H., and Singer, P. 1994. Individuals, humans, persons: Questions of life and death, 54. Salzburg: Sankt Augustine Academia Verlag.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tranφy, K. 1999. In the absence of ethical theory. Hastings Center Report 29:43.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Rendtorff, J., and Kemp, P. 2000. Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. vol. I Autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability, 25. Copenhagen, Barcelona: Centre for Bioethics and Law.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Harris, J. 1999. The concept of the person and the value of life. Kennedy Institute of Ethics 9:293–308, esp. 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kuhse, H., and Singer, P. 1994. Individuals, humans, persons: Questions of life and death, 64. Salzburg: Sankt Augustin Academia Verlag.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Easterbrook, G. 2002. Washington monthly online. November 2002.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Smith, W. 2000. Culture of death: The assault on medical ethics in America. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smith, W. 2000. Culture of death: The assault on medical ethics in America, 22. San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Maclean, A. 1993. Elimination of morality: Reflections on utilitarianism and bioethics, 3. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Elliott, C. 1999. Bioethics, culture and identity: A philosophical disease, xxi. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Elliott, C. 1999. Bioethics, culture and identity: A philosophical disease, 148. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Elliott, C. 1999. Bioethics, culture and identity: A philosophical disease, xxii. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schwartz, L., Preece, P., and Hendry, R. 2002. Medical ethics: A case-based approach, 1–5. Edinburgh: Saunders.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Harding, J. 2000. Is there a duty to die? And other essays in bioethics, 131. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fletcher, J. 1979. Humanhood: Essays in biomedical ethics, 91. New York: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Metz, Th. 2002. Recent work on the meaning of life. Ethics 112:781–814, esp.798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Metz, Th. 2002. Recent work on the meaning of life. Ethics 112: 781–814, esp.803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Loewy, R. 2000. Integrity and personhood: Looking at patients from a bio/psycho/social perspective, 37. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nussbaum, M., and Sen, A. eds. 1993. Quality of life, 127. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Quante, M. 2002. Personales Leben und menschlicher Tod: Personale Identität als Prinzip der biomedizinischen Ethik, 174. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Loewy, E. 1996. Textbook of health care ethics, 67. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    cf. Shibles, W. 1998. Philosophical counseling, philosophical education and emotion. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12:19–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Jonsen, A., Siegler, M., and Winsdale, W. 1998. Clinical ethics, 4th edn, 56, orig.1982. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Elliott, C. 1999. Bioethics, culture and identity: A philosophical disease, 147. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik, 338. München: Beck’sche Reihe.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik, 351 f. München: Beck’sche Reihe. Erneuerung der Kultur ist nur dadurch möglich, dass die Ethik wieder die Sache der denkenden Menschen wird. (Renewal of culture is only possible, when ethics again becomes the concern of thinking people). Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    AMA Principles of Medical Ethics. 2001. Adopted by the AMA´s House of Delegates June 17th, 2001.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. See preface.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kuhse, H., and Singer, P. 2006. Bioethics: An anthology, 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 4. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical Ethics and law: The core curriculum, 6–8. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Beauchamp, T., and Childress, J. orig. 1979–1994–2001. Principles of biomedical ethics, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 10–11. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 17. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shibles, W. 1980. Ethics as a Science: Going from is to ought. Iowa Science Teachers Journal 3:26–32.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 18. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 20–28. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    See Shibles, W. 1994. Cognitive-emotive theory of desire. Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 11:25–40.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 29 ff. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 35–36. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 34–35. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hope, T., Savulescu, J., and Hendrick, J. 2003. Medical ethics and law: The core curriculum, 39–49. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Pellegrino et al. Military medical ethics, vol I, 293–312. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E., et al. Washington, DC. Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30, esp.26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    See Shibles, W. 2002. “Requirements before Going to War” in eBook on Humor on the web Humor Reference Guide: A Comprehensive Classification and Analysis. eBook on humor at http://facstaff.uww.edu/shiblesw/ or search: Shibles humor.
  128. 128.
    Gelfand, M. 1968. Philosophy and ethics of medicine, 113. Edinburgh: Livingstone.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30 esp.24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30 esp.23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30 esp.27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30 esp.25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Gross, M. 2004. Bioethics and armed conflict. Hastings Center Report 34:22–30 esp.28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp.302. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E., et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 296. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E., et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 297. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E. et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 309. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E. et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 304. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E. et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 307. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E., et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sidel, V., and Levy, B. 2003. Physician-soldier: A moral dilemma? In Military medical ethics, vol 1, 293–312 esp. 308. eds. Pellegrino, E., Hartle, A., Howe, E., et al. Washington, DC: Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Bordon Institute.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Canetti, E. 1960. Masse und Macht, vol 2, 64 Regensburg: Claassen/Carl Hanser Verlag.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    cf. Shibles, W. 1999. I Ching as a metaphorical method of insight. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 26:343–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ellin, J. 1995. Morality and the meaning of life, 322–324. Ft. Worth, Texas: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Schweitzer, A. 1923/1996. Kultur und Ethik, 324, 339. München: Beck’sche Reihe, cf "Nach der Verantwortung, die ich in mir erlebe, muß ich entscheiden, was ich von meinem Leben, meinem Besitze, meiner Zeit, meiner Ruhe hingeben muß und was ich davon behalten darf.“(342) "Gesellschaftliche Leitlinien, eine gewisse allgemeine Moral wären dazu nicht geeignet, sie blieben zu oberflächlich, nicht wirklich kontextsensitiv. (339) According to the responsibility I feel myself, I have to decide what I have to hand in of my life, my possessions, my time, and my quietness and what I may keep. (342) Societal guidelines, certain general morals would not be suitable, they would remain too superficial, not really context-sensitive (My translation). Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schweitzer, A. 2003/1966. Die Ehrfurcht vor dem Leben. Grundtexte aus fünf Jahrzehnten, 8th edn, 107. ed. Bähr, H.W. München: CH Beck: Meine persönliche Ethik kann nur absolut sein, sie kann sich auf nichts Weiteres zurückziehen, sie folgt keinen gesellschaftlichen Imperativen, sie ist von Grund aus subjektiv, weil sie jedem von uns die Verantwortung zugesteht zu entscheiden, wieweit er in der Aufopferung gehen will." Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chomsky, N. 2002. 9–11. New York: Seven Stories Press.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Der Spiegel. 2005. Ethische Empfindungen No. 1/3, Jan 1, 2005: 98.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Savulescu, J. 1998. Two worlds apart: Religion and ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 24:382–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 13. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dirie W. 1998. Desert flower, 62–78. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 357 ff. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 351. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 239. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 236. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 139. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    See UN, World Health Organizations (WHO) and circumcision web sites for up to date statistics. U.N. WHO 2002: 13.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    See UN, World Health Organizations (WHO) and circumcision web sites for up to date statistics. U.N. WHO 1998: 358.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 241. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 368. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 52. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 46. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 201. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 60. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 360. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 16; 46. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 191. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 359. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 351. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 205. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Dirie, W. 1998. Desert flower, 461. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 13. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 226. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Dirie, W. 2002. Desert dawn, 223. London: Virago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsParacelsus Medical University SALKSalzburgAustria
  2. 2.University of Wisconsin–WhitewaterWhitewaterUSA

Personalised recommendations