Cell Based Therapies: What Do We Learn from Periosteal Osteochondrogenesis?

  • Peter J. EmansEmail author
  • Tim J. M. Welting
  • Venkatram Prasad Shastri
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)


Unraveling isolation, cultivation and transplantation protocols is often difficult and time consuming but essential to exploit the full potential of cell based therapies. Studying periosteal callus formation, may give novel insights how this tissue can be used to repair cartilage and bone defects and thus bypass optimization of the protocols mentioned above. Periosteal callus can be induced in vivo without breaking the bone. During periosteal callus formation, osteochondrogenic progenitor cells which reside in the cambium cambium layer, differentiate via the sequential steps of endochondral bone formation; chondrogenesis is initiated then chondrocytes differentiate into hypertrophic cells. These hypertrophic chondrocytes release pro-angiogenic factors, mineralize and bone is deposited. Grafts can be harvested during the chondrogenic phase. Compared to isolated undifferentiated periosteal cells, cells in these grafts survive the transplantation into an osteochondral defect much better. By injecting a gel between bone and periosteum, the micro-environment can be manipulated. Per example inhibition of vascularization and induction of hypoxia enhances periosteal chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, studying repair processes of the body in detail may not only give essential information for different cell based therapies, but can even lead to a complete other approach in which the body its own regenerative capacity is used.


Chondrogenesis Osteogenesis Osteochondral defects Periosteum 



The authors like to acknowledge Roel Kuijer, Sjoerd Bulstra, Lodewijk van Rhijn, and Willem Voncken for their input and support.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Emans
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tim J. M. Welting
    • 1
  • Venkatram Prasad Shastri
    • 2
  1. 1.Department Orthopaedic SurgeryUniversity Hospital MaastrichtMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Earth Sciences, Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry and Bioss-Center for Cell Signalling StudiesUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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