England’s Changing Social Geology

  • Daniel VickersEmail author
Part of the Understanding Population Trends and Processes book series (UPTA, volume 2)


This chapter reports on the changing nature of social patterns in England, or what the author calls “social geology”, by comparing area classifications derived for 1991 and 2001. Cluster analysis methods are employed to classify output areas used for reporting the results of the 2001 Census and to show that, for the majority of areas, both their position in the social hierarchy and their geodemographic class remain unchanged over the 1990s. However, changes are apparent and patterns are discernable for certain areas that suggest some polarisation, with increases in the wealthiest and poorest groups, and with a decline in the more mixed areas of the UK.


Cluster Centre Cluster Type Output Area Mixed Community Residential Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The funding for this research was provided by an ESRC Postdoctoral Fellowship (Award PTA-163-27-1006). Thanks must go to Graham Clarke for acting as mentor during the period of the fellowship, to Danny Dorling and Phil Rees for their comments and advice on the research and to Paul Norman for his help with joining the 1991 and 2001 datasets.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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