Cavitation Generation and Usage Without Ultrasound: Hydrodynamic Cavitation

  • Parag R. GogateEmail author
  • Aniruddha B. Pandit


Hydrodynamic Cavitation, which was and is still looked upon as an unavoidable nuisance in the flow systems, can be a serious contender as an alternative to acoustic cavitation for harnessing the spectacular effects of cavitation in physical and chemical processing. The present chapter covers the basics of hydrodynamic cavitation including the considerations for the bubble dynamics analysis, reactor designs and recommendations for optimum operating parameters. An overview of applications in different areas of physical, chemical and biological processing on scales ranging from few grams to several hundred kilograms has also been presented. Since hydrodynamic cavitation was initially proposed as an alternative to acoustic cavitation, it is necessary to compare the efficacy of both these modes of cavitations for a variety of applications and hence comparisons have been discussed either on the basis of energy efficiency or based on the scale of operation. Overall it appears that hydrodynamic cavitation results in conditions similar to those generated using acoustic cavitation but at comparatively much larger scale of operation and with better energy efficiencies.


Pressure Recovery High Pressure Homogenizer Acoustic Cavitation Cavitation Number Orifice Plate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Rayleigh L (1917) On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity. Philanthropic Mag 34:94–98Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chatterjee D, Arakeri VH (1997) Towards the concept of hydrodynamic cavitation control. J Fluid Mech 332:377–394Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2001) Hydrodynamic cavitation reactors: A state of the art review. Rev Chem Eng 17:1–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Versluis M, Schmitz B, Von der Heydt A, Lohse D (2000) How snapping shrimp snap: Through cavitating bubbles. Science 289:2114–2117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2005) A review and assessment of hydrodynamic cavitation as a technology for the future. Ultrason Sonochem 12:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moholkar VS, Pandit AB (1997) Bubble behavior in hydrodynamic cavitation: Effect of turbulence. AIChE J 43:1641–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2000) Engineering design methods for cavitation reactors II: Hydrodynamic cavitation reactors. AIChE J 46:1641–1649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yan Y, Thorpe RB, Pandit AB (1988) Cavitation noise and its suppression by air in orifice flow. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flow Induced Vibration and Noise, Chicago, ASME, pp 25–40Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yan Y, Thorpe RB (1990) Flow regime transitions due to cavitation in flow through an orifice. Int J Multiphase flow 16:1023–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tullis JP, Govindrajan R (1973) Cavitation and size scale effect for orifices. J Hydraul Div HY13:417–430Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moholkar VS, Senthilkumar P, Pandit AB (1999) Hydrodynamic cavitation for sonochemical effects. Ultrason Sonochem 6:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jyoti KK, Pandit AB (2001) Water disinfection by acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Biochem Eng J 7:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sivakumar M, Pandit AB (2002) Wastewater treatment: A novel energy efficient hydrodynamic cavitational technique. Ultrason Sonochem 9:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kelkar MA, Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2008) Intensification of esterification of acids for synthesis of biodiesel using acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Ultrason Sonochem 15:188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vichare NP, Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2000) Optimization of Hydrodynamic Cavitation Using a Model Reaction. Chem Eng Tech 23:683–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gogate PR, Shirgaonkar IZ, Sivakumar M, Senthilkumar P, Vichare NP, Pandit AB (2001) Cavitation reactors: Efficiency analysis using a model reaction. AIChE J 47:2326–2338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2004) Sonochemical reactors: Scale up aspects. Ultrason Sonochem 11:105–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kumar PS, Pandit AB (1999) Modeling hydrodynamic cavitation. Chem Eng Tech 22:1017–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moholkar VS, Pandit AB (2001) Numerical investigations in the behaviour of one-dimensional bubbly flow in hydrodynamic cavitation. Chem Eng Sci 56:1411–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moholkar VS, Pandit AB (2001) Modeling of hydrodynamic cavitation reactors: a unified approach. Chem Eng Sci 56:6295–6302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kanthale PM, Gogate PR, Wilhelm AM, Pandit AB (2005) Dynamics of cavitational bubbles and design of a hydrodynamic cavitational reactor: cluster approach. Ultrason Sonochem 12:441–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma A, Gogate PR, Mahulkar A, Pandit AB (2008) Modeling of hydrodynamic cavitation reactors using orifice plates considering hydrodynamics and chemical reactions occurring in bubble. Chem Eng J 143:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davies JT (1972) Turbulence phenomenon. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hansson I, Morch KA, Preece CM (1977) A comparison of u1trasonically generated cavitation erosion and natural flow cavitation erosion. In: Proceedings of the Ultrasonics International Conference, Brighton, UK, pp 267–274Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shirgaonkar IZ, Lothe RR, Pandit AB (1998) Comments on the mechanism of microbial cell disruption in High Pressure and High speed devices. Biotech Prog 14:657–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Senthilkumar P, Sivakumar M, Pandit AB (2000) Experimental quantification of chemical effects of hydrodynamic cavitation. Chem Eng Sci 55:1633–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sampathkumar K, Moholkar VS (2007) Conceptual design of a novel hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. Chem Eng Sci 62:2698–2711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pandit AB, Joshi JB (1993) Hydrolysis of fatty oils: Effect of cavitation. Chem Eng Sci 48:3440–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chivate MM, Pandit AB (1993) Effect of hydrodynamic and sonic cavitation on aqueous polymeric solutions. Ind Chem Engr 35:52–57Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ambulgekar GV, Samant SD, Pandit AB (2004) Oxidation of alkylarenes to the corresponding acids using aqueous potassium permanganate by hydrodynamic cavitation. Ultrason Sonochem 11:191–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ambulgekar GV, Samant SD, Pandit AB (2005) Oxidation of alkylarenes using aqueous potassium permanganate under cavitation: Comparison of acoustic and hydrodynamic techniques. Ultrason Sonochem 12:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang Y, Dube MA, Mclean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 1 Process design and technological assessment. Biores Tech 89:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Freedman B, Butterfield RO, Pryde EH (1986) Transesterification kinetics of soyabean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:1375–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Freedman B, Pryde EH, Mounts TL (1984) Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 61:1638–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gogate PR (2008) Cavitational reactors for process Intensification of chemical processing applications: A critical review. Chem Eng Proc 47:515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Patil MN, Pandit AB (2007) Cavitation-A novel technique for nano-suspensions/nanoemulsions. Ultrason Sonochem 14:519–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moser WR, Marshik-Geurts BJ, Kingsley J, Lemberger M, Willette R, Chan A, Sunstrom JE, Boye AJ (1995) The synthesis and characterization of solid state materials produced by high shear hydrodynamic cavitation. J Mater Res 10:2322–2335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sunstrom JE, Moser WR, Marshik-Guerts B (1996) General route to nanocrystalline oxides by hydrodynamic cavitation. Chem Mater 8:2061–2067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Moser WR, Sunstrom JE, Marshik-Guerts B (1996) The synthesis of nanostructured pure-phase catalysts by hydrodynamic cavitation, in: Moser WR (eds.) Proceedings of the Advanced Catalysts and Nanostructured Materials, pp 285-306.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Solonitsyn RA, Fumbarev AG, Pilipenko SD (1991) Use of hydrodynamic flow cavitation in pulp and paper technology. Bum Prom-st 8–9:16–19Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Danforth DN (1986) Effect of refining parameters on paper properties. Proceedings of the International Conference on New Technologies in Refining, 2, PIRA, Birmingham, England, UKGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Solonitsyn RA, Fumbarov AG, Tomashchuk GL, Grinin TV (1987) Advantages of Cavitation Method for Activation of Waste Paper. Bum Prom-St 1:25–27Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Geciova J, Bury D, Jelen P (2002) Methods for disruption of microbial cells for potential use in the dairy industry – a review. Int Dairy J 12:541–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Harrison STL (2002) Bacterial cell disruption: A key unit operation in the recovery of intracellular products. Biotech Adv 9:217–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Harrison STL, Pandit AB (1992) The disruption of microbial cells by hydrodynamic cavitation. 9th International Biotechnology Symp. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Save SS, Pandit AB, Joshi JB (1994) Microbial cell disruption: Role of cavitation. Chem Eng J 55:B67–B72Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Save SS, Pandit AB, Joshi JB (1997) Use of hydrodynamic cavitation for large scale cell disruption. Chem Eng Res Des 75:41–49Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Balasundaram B, Pandit AB (2001) Selective release of invertase by hydrodynamic cavitation. Biochem Eng J 8:251–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Balasundaram B, Pandit AB (2001) Significance of location of enzymes on their release during microbial cell disruption. Biotech Bioeng 75:607–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Balasundaram B, Harrison STL (2006) Study of physical and biological factors involved in the disruption of E. coli by hydrodynamic cavitation. Biotech Prog 22:907–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Balasundaram B, Harrison STL (2006) Disruption of Brewers’ yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release. Biotech Bioeng 94:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chisti Y, Moo-Young M (1986) Disruption of microbial cells for intracellular products. Enz Microb Tech 8:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Farkade VD, Harrison STL, Pandit AB (2005) Heat induced translocation of proteins and enzymes within the cells: an effective way to optimize the microbial cell disruption process. Biochem Eng J 23:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Farkade VD, Harrison STL, Pandit AB (2006) Improved cavitational cell disruption following pH pretreatment for the extraction of β-galactosidase from Kluveromyces lactis. Biochem Eng J 31:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Anand H, Balasundaram B, Pandit AB, Harrison STL (2007) The effect of chemical pretreatment combined with mechanical disruption on the extent of disruption and release of intracellular protein from E. coli. Biochem Eng J 35:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mason TJ, Joyce E, Phull SS, Lorimer JP (2003) Potential uses of ultrasound in the biological decontamination of water. Ultrason Sonochem 10:319–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Scherba G, Weigel RM, O’Brien WD (1991) Quantitative assessment of the germicidal efficacy of ultrasonic energy. App Env Microb 57:2079–2084Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Doulah MS (1977) Mechanism of disintegration of biological cells in ultrasonic cavitation. Biotech Bioeng 19:649–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Phull SS, Newman AP, Lorimer JP, Pollet B, Mason TJ (1997) The development and evaluation of ultrasound in the biocidal treatment of water. Ultrason Sonochem 4:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Piyasena P, Mohareb E, McKellar RC (2003) Inactivation of microbes using ultrasound: A review. Int J Food Microb 87:207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cheremissinoff NP, Cheremissinoff PN, Trattner RB (1981) Chemical and nonchemical disinfection. Ann Arbor Science Publishing, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jyoti KK, Pandit AB (2003) Water disinfection by acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Biochem Eng J 7:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jyoti KK, Pandit AB (2004) Effect of cavitation on chemical disinfection efficiency. Water Res 38:2249–2258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chand R, Bremner DH, Namkung KC, Collier PJ, Gogate PR (2007) Water disinfection using a novel approach of ozone assisted liquid whistle reactor. Biochem Eng J 35:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suslick KS, Mdleleni MM, Reis JT (1997) Chemistry Induced by Hydrodynamic Cavitation. J Am Chem Soc 119:9303–9304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kalumuck KM, Chahine GL (2000) The use of cavitating jets to oxidize organic compounds in water. J Fluids Eng 122:465–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wang X, Wang J, Guo P, Guo W, Li G (2008) Chemical effect of swirling jet-induced cavitation: Degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution. Ultrason Sonochem 15:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Braeutigam P, Wu Z-L, Stark A, Ondruschka B (2009) Degradation of BTEX in Aqueous Solution by Hydrodynamic Cavitation. Chem Eng Tech 32:745–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wang X, Zhang Y (2009) Degradation of alachlor in aqueous solution by using hydrodynamic cavitation. J Haz Mat 161:202–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2004) A review of imperative technologies for Waste water treatment II: Hybrid methods. Adv Env Res 8:553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chakinala AG, Gogate PR, Burgess AE, Bremner DH (2008) Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process. Ultrason Sonochem 15:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang X, Wang J, Guo P, Guo W, Wang C (2009) Degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution by using swirling jet-induced cavitation combined with H2O2. J Haz Mat 169:486–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pradhan AA, Gogate PR (2009) Degradation of p-nitrophenol Using Acoustic Cavitation and Fenton Chemistry. J Haz Mat 173:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    CAV-OX Cavitation Oxidation Process (1994) Application Analysis Report, Magnum Water Technology, Inc., Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S.E.P.A., Cincinnati, OHGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhou ZA, Hu H, Xu Z, Finch JA, Rao SR (1997) Role of hydrodynamic cavitation in fine particle flotation. Int J Miner Process 51:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rao SR, Finch JA, Zhou ZA, Xu Z (1998) Relative flotation response of zinc sulfide: mineral and precipitate. Sep Sci Tech 33:819–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hu H, Zhou ZA, Xu Z, Finch JA (1998) Numerical and experimental study of a cavitation tube. Metallur Mat Trans B 29:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Zhou ZA, Langlois R, Xu Z, Finch JA, Agnew R (1997) In-plant testing of a hydrodynamic reactor in flotation. In: Finch JA, Rao SR, Huang LM (eds) Processing of Complex Ores. CIM, Sudbury, Canada, pp 185–193Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hart G, Morgan S, Bramall N, Nicol S (2002) Enhanced coal flotation using picobubbles. CSIRO Report-C9048, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hart G, Townsend P, Morgan S, Morgan P, Firth B (2005) Enhanced coal flotation using picobubbles. CSIRO Report-C12049, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zhou ZA, Xu Z, Finch JA (1994) On the role of cavitation in particle collection during flotation – a critical review. Minerals Eng 7:1073–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tao Y, Liu J, Yu S, Tao D (2006) Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation. Sep Sci Tech 41:3597–3607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cox DW (1999) Dental irrigator employing hydrodynamic cavitation. US Patent number US 5860942A.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kozyuk OV (1996) Method and device for obtaining free disperse system in liquid. US Patent application No. 602069Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kozyuk OV (1998) Method of obtaining a free disperse system in liquid and device for effecting the same. US Patent US 5810 052Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kozyuk OV (1999) Use of hydrodynamic cavitation for emulsifying and homogenizing processes. Am Lab 31:6–8Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kozyuk OV (1999) Method and apparatus for producing ultra-thin emulsions and dispersions. US Patent US 5931771AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DepartmentInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations