Advertisement

Thermal and Ice Regimes of the Danube River and Its Tributaries

  • Alžbeta Stančíková
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of this study was to present an overview of the Danube thermal regime, its change and tendencies, with respect to time and along the river channel, and to elucidate these changes in relation to natural factors, whether geographic, morphologic, climatic, or anthropogenic, in the river channels or in the basins. The ice regime is closely linked to navigation, hydro energy, and to protection against floods. Therefore, another aim of this study is to compose the mean and extreme characteristics of the appearance and duration of ice phenomena and ice cover, and to examine their relationships with meteorological data.

Data were processed in relation to air and water temperatures, water discharge, and characteristics of the ice phenomena and freeze-up, from the whole observation period, and particularly for the period 1956–1985. These data are processed and arranged in easy-to-survey tables; some are also in graphical form. The achieved results should be of use in project assessments for active interventions in the river, for example for cooling in energetics and industry, and in solution of ecological or other problems.

Keywords

Temperatures of the water Thermal regime of the river Ice phenomena Freeze-up Ice regime of the water 

References

  1. Bayer. Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft: Projekt Nr. 2 “Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigsten Zubringer”. I. Teil, München, September 1989; II. Teil, München, April 1990Google Scholar
  2. BNK po MGP: Projekt No 2 “Termičeskij i ledovyj režim Dunaja i jego osnovnych pritokov”. Sofija, February 1990Google Scholar
  3. Donaukommission (1967) Studie über dasEisregime des Flusse Donau. BudapestGoogle Scholar
  4. Donaukommission: Hydrologisches Jahrbuch des Flusses Donau. Jahrgänge 1953 bis 1987. BudapestGoogle Scholar
  5. Federal Institut for Hydrometeorology: Projekt Nr.2 “Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigeren Zubringer”. Beograd, July 1990Google Scholar
  6. Forschungsanstalt für Wasserwitschaft (1988) Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigeren Zubringer. Methodik des Projektes Nr.2, BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  7. Forschungsanstalt für Wasserwitschaft: Projekt Nr.2 “Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigeren Zubringer”. I. Teil, Bratislava, December 1989Google Scholar
  8. IHP Nationalkomitees der Donauländer (1986) Die Donau und ihr Einzugsgebiet – Eine hydrologische MonographieGoogle Scholar
  9. Institut meteorogii i gidrologii: Projekt No 2 “Termičeskij i ledovyj režim Dunaja i jego osnovnych pritokov”, Nacionalnyj otčet. Bucharest, October 1990Google Scholar
  10. Regionale Zusammenarbeit der Donauländer im Rahmen IHP der UNESCO (1993): Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer witigeren Zubringer. BratislavaGoogle Scholar
  11. Technische Universität Wien: Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigeren Zubringer, Österreichischer Beitrag. Wien, September 1989Google Scholar
  12. VITUKI: Projekt Nr.2 “Temperatur- und Eisregime der Donau und ihrer wichtigeren Zubringer”. I. Teil, Budapest, September 1989; II. Teil, October 1989Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Research InstituteBratislavaSlovakia

Personalised recommendations