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Multifaceted Role of Heat Stress Proteins in the Kidney

  • Andrea Havasi
  • Jonathan M. Gall
  • Steven C. BorkanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 5)

Abstract

The kidney represents an ideal “laboratory” for assessing the role of physiologic stresses on stress proteins. This organ is equally well suited for assessing the protective effects of stress proteins against known renal insults. As a metabolically active organ that operates on the brink of “hypoxic disaster” and is capable of concentrating therapeutic agents to levels far higher than present in the circulation, the kidney is vulnerable to diverse stressors that include oxygen deprivation, ischemia, and nephrotoxin. Stress proteins exert potent stabilizing effects on epithelial cell architecture that represent reversible or “sublethal injury.” Stress proteins also promote cell survival, partly by interrupting the apoptotic pathway that contributes to organ failure. HSPs target different checkpoints in the cell death pathway, often utilizing distinct functional domains within a single HSPs to exert multiple cytoprotective effects. In sharp contrast to their protective effects in the intracellular milieu, recent evidence shows that HSPs in the extracellular compartment are pro-inflammatory. Given the relative paucity of treatments available to prevent injury or promote renal recovery, manipulation of endogenous stress proteins represents a promising arena for defining new approaches to nephrologic problems that contribute to substantial human morbidity and mortality

Keywords

Apoptosis BCL2 hypoxia ischemia nephrotoxins osmotic stress 

Abbreviations

A1AR

A1 adenosine receptors

AIF

apoptosis inducing factor

AKI

acute kidney injury

AVD

apoptotic volume decrease

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

CAN

chronic allograft nephropathy

CKD

chronic kidney disease

EMT

epithelial to mesenchymal transformation

GGA

geranylgeranylacetone

GSK3β

glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta

HSE

heat shock element

HSF

heat shock factor

HSP

heat shock protein

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

NO

nitric oxide

ORE

osmotic response element

PI3 kinase

phosphatidyl inositide 3 kinase

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TonEBP

tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein

UT-A

urea transporter-A

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea Havasi
    • 1
  • Jonathan M. Gall
    • 1
  • Steven C. Borkan
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Renal SectionBoston Medical Center, Evans Biomedical Research Center, Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA
  2. 2.Renal SectionBoston Medical Center, Evans Biomedical Research Center, Boston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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