72 kDa Extracellular Heat Shock Protein (eHsp72), Norepinephrine (NE), and the Innate Immune Response Following Moderate Exercise

  • Eduardo OrtegaEmail author
  • Esther Giraldo
  • M. Dolores Hinchado
  • Leticia Martín-Cordero
  • Juan J. García
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 5)


It is now well known that both norepinephrine (NE) and 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (eHsp72) are released during stress, and that they can activate the immune system, mainly the innate immune response, even before a pathogen challenge. This is one reason why they have been postulated as “stress messengers or mediators” or “danger signals” for the immune system during stress. Exercise constitutes a stress because it alters the organism’s homeostasis. Indeed, most of the exercise-induced changes in the immune system (including moderate exercise) are mediated by stress hormones and proteins, including NE and eHsp72. In this chapter, we present the latest studies performed in our laboratory about the role of NE and eHsp72 in the moderate-exercise-induced stimulation of neutrophil function, reviewing the main literature on the interaction between NE and Hsp72 not only in stimulating the innate immune response but also in the role of NE as a triggering signal in the stress-induced systemic release of eHsp72, particularly following moderate exercise. We also discuss the immunophysiological relevance of these interactions, as well as the optimal level of exercise that improves, but not impairs, the immune function by stimulating innate and/or inflammatory response mechanisms


Catecholamines Hsp70 neutrophils immunity stress health 



adrenocorticotropic hormone


antigen presenting cells


peripheral blood mononuclear cells


seventy two kilo Dalton extracellular heat shock protein


extracellular signal-regulated kinases


formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine peptide








nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


natural killer cells


Phosphoinositide 3-kinases


pattern recognition receptors


reactive oxygen species


sympathetic nervous system


stress proteins


toll like receptor 2



This work has been partially supported by Junta de Extremadura III PRI06A172 and MICINN-FEDER DEP2006-56187-C04-03, DEP 2009–10041 as well as by fellows from Consejería de Infraestructura y Desarrollo Tecnológico y Fundación Valhondo de Extremadura (Spain).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Ortega
    • 1
    Email author
  • Esther Giraldo
    • 2
  • M. Dolores Hinchado
    • 2
  • Leticia Martín-Cordero
    • 2
  • Juan J. García
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Fisiología. Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  2. 2.Department of Physiology (Immunophysiology Research Group), Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ExtremaduraBadajozSpain

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