Iceland: Glaciers and Volcanoes in the North Atlantic
This chapter provides an overview of the geology and geomorphology of Iceland. The position of Iceland on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge determines the volcanic geomorphology including shield volcanoes, lava flows, and the distinctive “moberg” mountains resulting from subglacial eruptions. The maritime location gives rise to large glacier systems in the mountains of the southeast of the island with much smaller valley glaciers in the drier north. The complex coastline shows steep cliffs, especially in lava flows, but large and complex spit–barrier beach systems occur, particularly in the southeast.
KeywordsBasalt coasts glaciers Iceland Mid-Atlantic Ridge mountains slopes volcanoes weathering
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