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Thermophysical Properties of Natural Glasses at the Extremes of the Thermal History Profile

  • Paul ThomasEmail author
  • Jaroslav Šesták
  • Klaus Heide
  • Ekkehard Füglein
  • Peter Šimon
Chapter
Part of the Hot Topics in Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry book series (HTTC, volume 8)

Abstract

Natural amorphous glassy silicates are widely distributed and are found in quantities that range from micrograms to kilo tonnes and, hence, their occurrence is from microscopic glassy inclusions to “glassy mountains” [1]. These natural glasses have two generic origins which may be generalised as vitreous glasses, formed from the melt state by relatively rapid cooling at cooling rates that inhibit crystal formation, or diagenetic glasses, formed by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism where crystallisation is inhibited by the Ostwald's rule of stepwise petrogenesis [2]. The thermal histories of a range of natural glasses are depicted in the schematic of Fig. 19.1 and vary significantly from the typical conditions used in the glass industry which are optimised between processing speed and energy conservation. In the extremes, tektites like moldavites are formed by extremely fast heating and melting at very high temperatures (> 3,000 K) followed by quenching at extreme cooling rates (≥10 K/s). By contrast the formation of amorphous glasses from mineral diagenesis or biotic processes occurs at much lower temperatures and over longer time periods; the formation of sedimentary opal, for example, occurs at ambient temperatures, it is essentially isothermal, and takes place over long periods of time of the order of months to years.

Keywords

Silica Sphere Trace Element Ratio Fictive Temperature Rhyolitic Composition Natural Glass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

DEGAS

High vacuum hot extraction gas analysis by mass spectroscopy

GAB

Great Artesian (Australian) Basin

LVT

Lunar volcanic theory

Opal-A

Amorphous opal

Opal-CT

Cristobalite-tridimite ordered opal

Opal-C

Cristobalite ordered opal

Opal-AG

Amorphous gel-like opal

Opal-AN

Amorphous network-like opal

TIT

Terrestrial impact theory

TMA

Thermomechanical analysis

XRD

X-ray diffraction

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Thomas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaroslav Šesták
    • 2
  • Klaus Heide
    • 3
  • Ekkehard Füglein
    • 4
  • Peter Šimon
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Forensic ScienceUniversity of TechnologySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Solid-State Physics SectionAcademy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, v.v.i.Praha 6Czech Republic
  3. 3.Chemisch-Geowissenschaftliche FakultatUniversitat JenaJenaGermany
  4. 4.Netzsch-Gerätebau GmbHSelbGermany
  5. 5.Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Department of Physical ChemistrySlovak University of TechnologyBratislavaSlovak Republic

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