Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Plants — Metabolic Pathways, Structure and Organization

  • Adrian P. Brown
  • Antoni R. SlabasEmail author
  • John B. Rafferty
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 30)


Progress in the elucidation of metabolic pathways for fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in plants is reviewed, together with evidence for gene function. Research in this area is being driven by the importance of storage lipids as potential new raw materials to replace petrochemicals. Significant advances have been made in the structural analysis of a number of the soluble enzymes in these pathways but progress still has to be made on membrane-bound enzymes. Many of the enzymes of triacylglycerol biosynthesis have been identified but the relative importance of the acyl-CoA dependent and independent pathways remains to be determined. The role of particular isoenzymes in specific triacylglycerol assembly remains a major challenge together with determining higher orders of enzyme interaction and metabolic channeling.


Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Unusual Fatty Acid Biotin Carboxylase Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Acetyl-CoA carboxylase


Acyl-carrier protein


Coenzyme A


Diacylglycerol acyltransferase


Fatty acid synthase


Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase


Phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltransferase


1-Acyl sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase



The authors wish to thank the Biological and Biotechnology Research Council for supporting work in the Durham and Sheffield laboratories over the years. Specific acknowledgement is given by Antoni R. Slabas and Adrian P. Brown for support from the LINK “Renewable Raw Materials” programme for the work on Ricinus.


  1. Alban C, Baldet P and Douce R (1994) Localization and characterization of two structurally different forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in young pea leaves, of which one is sensitive to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides. Biochem J 300: 557–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson MX, Goksör M and Sandelius AS (2007) Optical manipulation reveals strong attracting forces at membrane contacting sites between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplasts. J Biol Chem 282: 1170–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bach L, Michaelson LV, Haslam R, Bellec Y, Gissot L, Marion J, Da Costa M, Boutin J-P, Miquel M, Tellier F, Domergue F, Markham JE, Beaudoin F, Napier JA and Faure J-D (2008) The very-long-chain hydroxyl fatty acyl-CoA dehydratase PASTICCINO2 is essential and limiting for plant development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 14727–14731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaudoin F, Gable K, Sayanova O, Dunn T and Napier JA (2002) A Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene required for het-erologous fatty acid elongase activity encodes a micro-somal β-keto-reductase. J Biol Chem 277: 11481–11488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beisson F, Li Y, Bonaventure G, Pollard M and Ohlrogge JB (2007) The acyltransferase GPAT5 is required for the synthesis of suberin in seed coat and root of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19: 351–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beremand PD, Hannapel DJ, Guerra DJ, Kuhn DN and Ohlrogge JB (1987) Synthesis, cloning, and expression in Escherichia coli of a spinach acyl carrier protein gene. Arch Biochem Biophys 256: 90–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourgis F, Kader J-C, Barret P, Renard M, Robinson D, Robinson C, Delseny M and Roscoe TJ (1999) A plastidial lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase from oilseed rape. Plant Physiol 120: 913–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brough CL, Coventry JM, Christie WW, Kroon JTM, Brown AP, Barsby TL and Slabas AR (1996) Towards the genetic engineering of triacylglycerols of defined fatty acid composition: major changes in erucic acid content at the sn-2 position affected by the introduction of a 1-acyl-sn-glyc-erol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Limnanthes doug-lasii into oil seed rape. Mol Breed 2: 133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown AP, Coleman J, Tommey AM, Watson MD and Sla-bas AR (1994) Isolation and characterization of a maize cDNA that complements a 1-acyl sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase mutant of Escherichia coli and encodes a protein which has similarities to other acyltransferases. Plant Mol Biol 26: 211–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown AP, Brough CL, Kroon JTM and Slabas AR (1995) Identification of a cDNA that encodes a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Limnanthes douglasii. Plant Mol Biol 29: 267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown AP, Affleck V, Kroon JTM and Slabas AR (2009) Proof of function of a putative 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein dehydratase from higher plants by mass spectrom-etry of product formation. FEBS Lett 583: 363–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Broun P, Shanklin J, Whittle E and Somerville C (1998) Catalytic plasticity of fatty acid modification enzymes underlying chemical diversity of plant lipids. Science 282: 1315–1317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgal J, Shockey J, Lu CF, Dyer J, Larson T, Graham I and Browse J (2008) Metabolic engineering of hydroxy fatty acid production in plants: RcDGAT2 drives dramatic increases in ricinoleate levels in seed oil. Plant Biotechnol J 6: 819–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J and Emili A (2005) Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli. Nature 433: 531–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cahoon EB and Ohlrogge JB (1994) Metabolic evidence for the involvement of a Δ4-palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein desat-urase in petroselinic acid synthesis in coriander endosperm and transgenic tobacco cells. Plant Physiol 104: 827–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cahoon EB, Shanklin J and Ohlrogge JB (1992) Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 11184–11188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlsson AS, LaBrie ST, Kinney AJ, von Wettstein-Knowles P and Browse J (2002) A KAS2 cDNA complements the phenotypes of the Arabidopsis fab1 mutant that differs in a single residue bordering the substrate binding pocket. Plant J 29: 761–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cases S, Smith SJ, Zheng Y-W, Myers HM, Lear SR, Sande E, Novak S, Collins C, Welch CB, Lusis AJ, Erickson SK and Farese RV Jr (1998) Identification of a gene encoding an acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 13018–13023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Caughey I and Kekwick RGO (1982) The characteristics of some components of the fatty acid synthetase system in the plastids from the mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana) fruit. Eur J Biochem 123: 553–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clough RC, Matthis AL, Barnum SR and Jaworski JG (1992) Purification and characterization of 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach: a condensing enzyme utilizing acetyl-CoA to initiate fatty acid synthesis. J Biol Chem 267: 20992–20998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cottingham IR, Austin A, Sidebottom C and Slabas AR (1988) Purified enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase from rape seed (Brassica napus) contains two closely related polypeptides which differ by a six-amino-acid N-terminal extension. Biochim Biophys Acta 954: 201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dahlqvist A, Ståhl U, Lenman M, Banas A, Lee M, Sandager L, Ronne H and Stymne S (2000) Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase: an enzyme that catalyzes the acyl-CoA-independent formation of triacylglycerol in yeast and plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 6487–6492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dehesh K, Jones A, Knutzon DS and Voelker TA (1996) Production of high levels of 8:0 and 10:0 fatty acids in trans-genic canola by overexpression of Ch FatB2, a thioesterase cDNA from Cuphea hookeriana. Plant J 9: 167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dehesh K, Edwards P, Fillatti J, Slabaugh M and Byrne J (1998) KAS IV: a 3-ketoacyl-ACP synthase from Cuphea sp. is a medium chain specific condensing enzyme. Plant J 15: 383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. DeLano WL (2002) The PyMOL Molecular Graphics System. DeLano Scientific, Palo Alto, CA. Available at Accessed on November 29, 2008Google Scholar
  26. Drøbak BK and Heras B (2002) Nuclear phosphoinositides could bring FYVE alive. Trends Plant Sci 7: 132–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feussner I and Wasternack C (2002) The lipoxygenase pathway. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53: 275–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fisher M, Kroon JTM, Martindale W, Stuitje AR, Slabas AR and Rafferty JB (2000) The X-ray structure of Brassica napus beta-ketoacyl carrier protein reductase and its implications for substrate binding and catalysis. Struct Fold Des 8: 339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fox SR, Hill LM, Rawsthorne S and Hills MJ (2000) Inhibition of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plastids by acyl-CoA thioesters reduces fatty acid synthesis. Biochem J 352: 525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Frentzen M (1998) Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils. Fett-Lipid 100: 161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gable K, Garton S, Napier JA and Dunn TM (2004) Functional characterization of the Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of Tsc13p, the enoyl reductase of the yeast microsomal fatty acid elongating system. J Exp Bot 55: 543–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gibson S, Arondel V, Iba K and Somerville C (1994) Cloning of a temperature-regulated gene encoding a chloroplast omega-3 desaturase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol 106: 1615–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Green PR and Bell RM (1984) Asymmetric reconstitution of homogeneous Escherichia coli sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase into phospholipid vesicles. J Biol Chem 259: 14688–14694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Guerra DJ and Ohlrogge JB (1986) Partial purification and characterization of two forms of malonyl-coenzyme A: acyl carrier protein transacylase from soybean leaf tissue. Arch Biochem Biophys 246: 274–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guy JE, Whittle E, Kumaran D, Lindqvist Y and Shanklin J (2007) The crystal structure of the ivy Δ4–16:0-ACP desaturase reveals structural details of the oxidized active site and potential determinants of regioselectivity. J Biol Chem 282: 19863–19871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Han G-S, Wu W-I and Carman GM (2006) The Saccha-romyces cerevisiae lipin homolog is a Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase enzyme. J Biol Chem 281: 9210–9218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanke C, Wolter FP, Coleman J, Peterek G and Frentzen M (1995) A plant acyltransferase involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis complements an Escherichia coli sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase mutant. Eur J Biochem 232: 806–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harwood JL (1996) Recent advances in the biosynthesis of plant fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1301: 7–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. He XH, Turner C, Chen GQ, Lin JT and McKeon TA (2004) Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding diacyl-glycerol acyltransferase from castor bean. Lipids 39: 311–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hellyer A, Leadlay PF and Slabas AR (1992) Induction, purification and characterization of acyl-ACP thioesterase from developing seeds of oil seed rape (Brassica napus). Plant Mol Biol 20: 763–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hobbs DH, Lu C and Hills MJ (1999) Cloning of a cDNA encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Arabidop-sis thaliana and its functional expression. FEBS Lett 452: 145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hsieh K and Huang AHC (2004) Endoplasmic reticulum, oleosins, and oils in seeds and tapetum cells. Plant Physiol 136: 3427–3434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jako C, Kumar A, Wei Y, Zou J, Barton DL, Giblin EM, Covello PS and Taylor DC (2001) Seed-specific over-expression of an Arabidopsis cDNA encoding a diacyl-glycerol acyltransferase enhances seed oil content and seed weight. Plant Physiol 126: 861–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jaworski J and Cahoon EB (2003) Industrial oils from trans-genic plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6: 178–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jenni S, Leibundgut M, Maier T and Ban N (2006) Architecture of a fungal fatty acid synthase at 5 å resolution. Science 311: 1263–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jouhet J, Maréchal E and Block MA (2007) Glycerolipid transfer for the building of membranes in plant cells. Prog Lipid Res 46: 37–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joyard J, Maréchal E, Miege C, Block MA, Dorne AJ and Douce R (1998) Structure, distribution and biosynthesis of glycerolipids from higher plant chloroplasts. In: Siegenthaler P-A and Murata N (eds) Lipids in Photosynthesis: Structure, Function and Genetics. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 21–52Google Scholar
  48. Kater MM, Koningstein GM, Nijkamp HJJ and Stuitje AR (1991) cDNA cloning and expression of Brassica napus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol Biol 17: 895–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaufman AJ (1990) Oleochemicals — a look at world trends. INFORM 1: 1034–1048Google Scholar
  50. Ke J, Wen T-N, Nikolau BJ and Wurtele ES (2000) Coordinate regulation of the nuclear and plastidic genes coding for the subunits of the heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase. Plant Physiol 122: 1057–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kihara A, Sakuraba H, Ikeda M, Denpoh A and Igarashi Y (2008) Membrane topology and essential amino acid residues of Phs1, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase involved in very long-chain fatty acid elongation. J Biol Chem 283: 11199–11209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kim HU and Huang AHC (2004) Plastid lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase is essential for embryo development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 134: 1206–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kim HU, Li YB and Huang AHC (2005) Ubiquitous and endoplasmic reticulum-located lysophosphatidyl acyl-transferase, LPAT2, is essential for female but not male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17: 1073–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kimber MS, Martin F, Lu Y, Houston S, Vedadi M, Dhar-amsi A, Fiebig KM, Schmid M and Rock CO (2004) The structure of (3R)-hydroxy-acyl carrier protein dehydratase (FabZ) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Biol Chem 279: 52593–52602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knutzon DS, Lardizabal KD, Nelsen JS, Bleibaum JL, Maelor Davis H and Metz JG (1995) Cloning of a coconut endosperm cDNA encoding a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phos-phate acyltransferase that accepts medium-chain-length substrates. Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Knutzon DS, Hayes TR, Wyrick A, Xiong H, Maelor Davis H and Voelker TA (1999) Lysophosphatidic acid acyl-transferase from coconut endosperm mediates the insertion of laurate at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols in lauric acid rapeseed oil and can increase total laurate levels. Plant Physiol 120: 739–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Koo AJK, Ohlrogge JB and Pollard M (2004) On the export of fatty acids from the chloroplast. J Biol Chem 279: 16101–16110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kroon JTM, Wei WX, Simon WJ and Slabas AR (2006) Identification and functional expression of a type 2 acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) in developing castor bean seeds which has high homology to the major triglyceride biosynthetic enzyme of fungi and animals. Phytochemistry 67: 2541–2549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kuo TM and Ohlrogge JB (1984) The primary structure of spinach acyl carrier protein. Arch Biochem Biophys 234: 290–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lacey DJ and Hills MJ (1996) Heterogeneity of the endo-plasmic reticulum with respect to lipid synthesis in developing seeds of Brassica napus L. Planta 199: 545–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lardizabal KD, Mai JT, Wagner NW, Wyrick A, Voelker T and Hawkins DJ (2001) DGAT2 is a new diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family — purification, cloning, and expression in insect cells of two polypeptides from Mor-tierella ramanniana with diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. J Biol Chem 276: 38862–38869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lardizabal K, Effertz R, Levering C, Mai J, Pedroso MC, Jury T, Aasen E, Gruys K and Bennett K (2008) Expression of Umbelopsis ramanniana DGAT2A in seed increases oil in soybean. Plant Physiol 148: 89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Larson TJ, Lightner VA, Green PR, Modrich P and Bell RM (1980) Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Identification of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyl-transferase polypeptide as the plsB gene product. J Biol Chem 255: 9421–9426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lee M, Lenman M, Banas A, Bafor M, Singh S, Schweizer M, Nilsson R, Liljenberg C, Dahlqvist A, Gummeson P-O, Sjödahl S, Green A and Stymne S (1998) Identification of non-heme diiron proteins that catalyze triple bond and epoxy group formation. Science 280: 915–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lerouge P, Roche P, Faucher C, Maillet F, Truchet G, Promé JC and Dénarié J (1990) Symbiotic host-specificity of Rhizo-bium meliloti is determined by a sulphated and acylated glu-cosamine oligosaccharide signal. Nature 344: 781–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li Y, Beisson F, Koo AJ, Molina I, Pollard M and Ohlrogge J (2007) Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 18339–18344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lindqvist Y, Huang WJ, Schneider G and Shanklin J (1996) Crystal structure of a Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein from castor seed and its relationship to other diiron proteins. EMBO J 15: 4081–4092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Liu W, Harrison DK, Chalupska D, Gornicki P, O'Donnell CC, Adkins SW, Haselkorn R and Williams RR (2007) Single-site mutations in the carboxyltransferase domain of plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase confer resistance to grass-specific herbicides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 3627–3632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D and Darnell J (2000) Protein structure and function. In: Molecular Cell Biology. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, pp. 50–94Google Scholar
  70. Lomakin IB, Xiong Y and Steitz TA (2007) The crystal structure of yeast fatty acid synthase, a cellular machine with eight active sites working together. Cell 129: 319–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mackintosh RW, Hardie DG and Slabas AR (1989) A new assay procedure to study the induction of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I and II, and the complete purification of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I from developing seeds of oilseed rape. Biochim Biophys Acta 1002: 114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maier T, Jenni S and Ban N (2006) Architecture of mammalian fatty acid synthase at 4.5 å resolution. Science 311: 1258–1262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maier T, Leibundgut M and Ban N (2008) The crystal structure of a mammalian fatty acid synthase. Science 321: 1315–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mancha M and Stymne S (1997) Remodelling of triacyl glycerols in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm. Planta 203: 51–57Google Scholar
  75. Marles-Wright J, Grant T, Delumeau O, van Duinen G, Firbank SJ, Lewis PJ, Murray JW, Newman JA, Quin MB, Race PR, Rohou A, Tichelaar W, van Heel M and Lewis RJ (2008) Molecular architecture of the “stressosome,” a signal integration and transduction hub. Science 322: 92–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mayer KM and Shanklin J (2005) A structural model of the plant acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase FatB comprises two helix/4-stranded sheet domains, the N-terminal domain containing residues that affect specificity and the C-terminal domain containing catalytic residues. J Biol Chem 280: 3621–3627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McKeon TA and Stumpf PK (1982) Purification and characterization of the stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase and the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from maturing seeds of safflower. J Biol Chem 257: 12141–12147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mhaske V, Beldjilali K, Ohlrogge J and Pollard M (2005) Isolation and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana knockout line for phospholipid: diacylglycerol transacylase gene (At5g13640). Plant Physiol Biochem 43: 413–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Millar AA and Kunst L (1997) Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is controlled through the expression and specificity of the condensing enzyme. Plant J 12: 121–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Millar AA, Clemens S, Zachgo S, Giblin EM, Taylor DC and Kunst L (1999) CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme. Plant Cell 11: 825–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Moche M, Shanklin J, Ghoshal A and Lindqvist Y (2003) Azide and acetate complexes plus two iron-depleted crystal structures of the di-iron enzyme Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase — implications for oxygen activation and catalytic intermediates. J Biol Chem 278: 25072–25080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moon H, Smith MA and Kunst L (2001) A condensing enzyme from the seeds of Lesquerella fendleri that specifically elongates hydroxy fatty acids. Plant Physiol 127: 1635–1643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mullineaux CW, Tobin MJ and Jones GR (1997) Mobility of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes. Nature 390: 421–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Murata N, Ishizaki-Nishizawa O, Higashi S, Hayashi H, Tasaka Y and Nishida I (1992) Genetically engineered alteration in the chilling sensitivity of plants. Nature 356: 710–713; (see also correction) Nature 357: 607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murphy DJ (1990) Storage lipid bodies in plants and other organisms. Prog Lipid Res 29: 299–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Napier JA (2007) The production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 58: 295–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nikolau BJ, Ohlrogge JB and Wurtele ES (2003) Plant biotin-containing carboxylases. Arch Biochem Biophys 414: 211–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nishida I and Murata N (1996) Chilling sensitivity in plants and cyanobacteria: the crucial contribution of membrane lipids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 47: 541–568Google Scholar
  89. Nykiforuk CL, Furukawa-Stoffer TL, Huff PW, Sarna M, Laroche A, Moloney MM and Weselake RJ (2002) Characterization of cDNAs encoding diacylglycerol acyltransferase from cultures of Brassica napus and sucrose-mediated induction of enzyme biosynthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1580: 95–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Oefner C, Schulz H, D'Arcy A and Dale GE (2006) Mapping the active sites of Escherichia coli malonyl-CoA: acyl carrier protein transacylase (FabD) by protein crystallography. Acta Crystallogr D 62: 613–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ohlrogge J and Browse J (1995) Lipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7: 957–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Olsen JG, Rasmussen AV, von Wettstein-Knowles P and Hen-riksen A (2004) Structure of the mitochondrial β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase from Arabidopsis and its role in fatty acid synthesis. FEBS Lett 577: 170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Page RA and Harwood JL (1992) In search of the cDNA of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II in oilseed rape. In: Cherif A, Miled-Daoud DJ, Marzouk B, Smaoui A and Zarrouk M (eds) Metabolism Structure and Utilization of Plant Lipids. Centre National Pédagogique, Tunis, pp. 201–204Google Scholar
  94. Parris KD, Lin L, Tam A, Mathew R, Hixon J, Stahl M, Fritz CC, Seehra J and Somers WS (2000) Crystal structures of substrate binding to Bacillus subtilis holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase reveal a novel trimeric arrangement of molecules resulting in three active sites. Struct Fold Des 8: 883–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Paul S, Gable K and Dunn TM (2007) A six-membrane-spanning topology for yeast and Arabidopsis Tsc13p, the enoyl reductases of the microsomal fatty acid elongating system. J Biol Chem 282: 19237–19246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pearce ML and Slabas AR (1998) Phosphatidate phos-phatase from avocado (Persea americana) — purification, substrate specificity and possible metabolic implications for the Kennedy pathway and cell signalling in plants. Plant J 14: 555–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Price LJ, Herbert D, Moss SR, Cole DJ and Harwood JL (2003) Graminicide insensitivity correlates with herbicide-binding co-operativity on acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms. Biochem J 375: 415–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Qi B, Fraser T, Mugford S, Dobson G, Sayanova O, Butler J, Napier JA, Stobart AK and Lazarus CM (2004) Production of very long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in plants. Nat Biotechnol 22: 739–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rafferty JB, Simon JW, Baldock C, Artymiuk PJ, Baker PJ, Stuitje AR, Slabas AR and Rice DW (1995) Common themes in redox chemistry emerge from the X-ray structure of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase. Structure 3: 927–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rasmussen J, Færgeman NJ, Kristiansen K and Knudsen J (1994) Acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) can mediate intermembrane acyl-CoA transport and donate acyl-CoA for β-oxidation and glycerolipid synthesis. Biochem J 299: 165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rawsthorne, S (2002) Carbon flux and fatty acid synthesis in plants. Prog Lipid Res 41: 182–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Roughan PG (1997) Stromal concentrations of coenzyme A and its esters are insufficient to account for rates of chloroplast fatty acid synthesis: evidence for substrate channelling within the chloroplast fatty acid synthase. Biochem J 327: 267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Roughan PG and Ohlrogge JB (1996) Evidence that isolated chloroplasts contain an integrated lipid-synthesizing assembly that channels acetate into long-chain fatty acids. Plant Physiol 110: 1239–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Roujeinikova A, Sedelnikova S, de Boer GJ, Stuitje AR, Slabas AR, Rafferty JB and Rice DW (1999) Inhibitor binding studies on enoyl reductase reveal conformational changes related to substrate recognition. J Biol Chem 274: 30811–30817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Roujeinikova A, Baldock C, Simon WJ, Gilroy J, Baker PJ, Stuitje AR, Rice DW, Slabas AR and Rafferty JB (2002) X-ray crystallographic studies on butyryl-ACP reveal flexibility of the structure around a putative acyl chain binding site. Structure 10: 825–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Roujeinikova A, Simon WJ, Gilroy J, Rice DW, Rafferty JB and Slabas AR (2007) Structural studies of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein) thioesters reveal a hydrophobic binding cavity that can expand to fit longer substrates. J Mol Biol 365: 135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Routaboul J-M, Benning C, Bechtold N, Caboche M and Lepiniec L (1999) The TAG1 locus of Arabidopsis encodes for a diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Plant Phys-iol Biochem 37: 831–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Safford R, Windust JHC, Lucas C, Silva J, James CM, Hel-lyer A, Smith CG, Slabas AR and Hughes SG (1988) Plas-tid-localised seed acyl-carrier protein of Brassica napus is encoded by a distinct, nuclear multigene family. Eur J Biochem 174: 287–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saha S, Enugutti B, Rajakumari S and Rajasekharan R (2006) Cytosolic triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in oilseeds. Molecular cloning and expression of peanut cytosolic diacylglycerol acyltransferase. Plant Physiol 141: 1533–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Samuels L, Kunst L and Jetter R (2008) Sealing plant surfaces: cuticular wax formation by epidermal cells. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59: 683–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sasaki Y and Nagano Y (2004) Plant acetyl-CoA carboxy-lase: structure, biosynthesis, regulation, and gene manipulation for plant breeding. Biosci Biotech Bioch 68: 1175–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sasaki Y, Hakamada K, Suama Y, Nagano Y, Furusawa I and Matsuno R (1993) Chloroplast-encoded protein as a subu-nit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in pea plant. J Biol Chem 268: 25118–25123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sasaki Y, Konishi T and Nagano Y (1995) The compartmen-tation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in plants. Plant Physiol 108: 445–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Savage LJ and Ohlrogge JB (1999) Phosphorylation of pea chloroplast acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Plant J 18: 521–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schnurr JA, Shockey JM, DeBoer GJ and Browse JA (2002) Fatty acid export from the chloroplast: molecular characterization of a major plastidial acyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 129: 1700–1709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schultz DJ, Cahoon EB, Shanklin J, Craig R, Cox-Foster DL, Mumma RO and Medford JI (1996) Expression of a Δ9 14:0-acyl carrier protein fatty acid desaturase gene is necessary for the production of ω5 anacardic acids found in pest-resistant geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 8771–8775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Serre L, Verbree EC, Dauter Z, Stuitje AR and Derewenda ZS (1995) The Escherichia coli malonyl-CoA: acyl carrier protein transacylase at 1.5-Å resolution — crystal structure of a fatty acid synthase component. J Biol Chem 270: 12961–12964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shanklin J and Cahoon EB (1998) Desaturation and related modifications of fatty acids. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 49: 611–641Google Scholar
  119. Shanklin J and Somerville C (1991) Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2510–2514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sheldon PS, Kekwick RGO, Sidebottom C, Smith CG and Slabas AR (1990) 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) reductase from avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp. Biochem J 271: 713–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sheldon PS, Kekwick RGO, Smith CG, Sidebottom C and Slabas AR (1992) 3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Biochim Biophys Acta 1120: 151–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shimakata T and Stumpf PK (1982) Purification and characterizations of β-ketoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase, β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydrase, and enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase from Spinacia oler-acea leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys: 218: 77–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shockey JM, Fulda MS and Browse JA (2002) Arabidopsis contains nine long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase genes that participate in fatty acid and glycerolipid metabolism. Plant Physiol 129: 1710–1722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shockey JM, Fulda MS and Browse JA (2003) Arabidopsis contains a large superfamily of acyl-activating enzymes. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis reveals a new class of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases. Plant Physiol 132: 1065–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shockey JM, Gidda SK, Chapital DC, Kuan JC, Dhanoa PK, Bland JM, Rothstein SJ, Mullen RT and Dyer JM (2006) Tung tree DGAT1 and DGAT2 have nonredundant functions in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are localized to different subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum. Plant Cell 18: 2294–2313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shorrosh BS, Savage LJ, Soll J and Ohlrogge JB (1996) The pea chloroplast membrane-associated protein, IEP96, is a subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Plant J 10: 261–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Siggard-Andersen M, Kauppinen S and von Wettstein-Knowles P (1991) Primary structure of a cerulenin-binding beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase from barley chloroplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 4114–4118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Simon JW and Slabas AR (1998) cDNA cloning of Brassica napus malonyl-CoAACP transacylase (MCAT) (fabD) and complementation of an E. coli MCAT mutant. FEBS Lett 435: 204–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Slabas AR and Smith CG (1988) Immunogold localization of acyl carrier protein in plants and Escherichia coli -evidence for membrane association in plants. Planta 175: 145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Slabas AR, Sidebottom C, Hellyer A, Kessell RMJ and Tombs MP (1986) Induction, purification and characterization of NADH-specific enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase from developing seeds of oil seed rape (Brassica napus). Biochim Biophys Acta 877: 271–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Slabas AR, Harding J, Hellyer A, Roberts P and Bambridge HE (1988) Induction, purification and characterization of acyl carrier protein from developing seeds of oil seed rape (Brassica napus). Biochim Biophys Acta 921: 50–59Google Scholar
  132. Slabas AR, Cottingham IR, Austin A, Hellyer A, Safford R and Smith CG (1990) Immunological detection of NADH-specific enoyl-ACP reductase from rape seed (Brassica napus) — induction, relationship of a and β polypeptides, mRNA translation and interaction with ACP. Biochim Biophys Acta 1039: 181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Slabas AR, Chase D, Nishida I, Murata N, Sidebottom C, Safford R, Sheldon PS, Kekwick RGO, Hardie G and Mackintosh RW (1992) Molecular cloning of higher plant 3-oxoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) reductase — sequence identities with the nodG-gene product of the nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Rhizobium meliloti. Biochem J 283: 321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Slabas AR, Hanley Z, Schierer T, Rice D, Turnbull A, Rafferty J, Simon B and Brown AP (2001) Acyltransferases and their role in the biosynthesis of lipids — opportunities for new oils. J Plant Physiol 158: 505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Slabaugh MB, Leonard JM and Knapp S (1998) Condensing enzymes from Cuphea wrightii associated with medium chain fatty acid biosynthesis. Plant J 13: 611–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Smith MA, Cross AR, Jones OTG, Griffiths WT, Stymne S and Stobart K (1990) Electron-transport components of the 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine Δ12-desatu-rase (Δ12-desaturase) in microsomal preparations from developing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cotyledons. Biochem J 272: 23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Smith MA, Moon H, Chowrira G and Kunst L (2003) Heterologous expression of a fatty acid hydroxylase gene in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta 217: 507–516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Somerville C and Browse J (1991) Plant lipids: metabolism, mutants and membranes. Science 252: 80–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ståhl U, Carlsson AS, Lenman M, Dahlqvist A, Huang B, Banaś W, Banaś A and Stymne S (2004) Cloning and functional characterization of a phospholipid: diacylglycerol acyltrans-ferase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 135: 1324–1335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Stobart K, Mancha M, Lenman M, Dahlqvist A and Stymne S (1997) Triacylglycerols are synthesised and utilized by transacylation reactions in microsomal preparations of developing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds. Planta 203: 58–66Google Scholar
  141. Stumpf PK and Shimakata T (1983) Molecular structures and functions of plant fatty acid synthetase enzymes. In: Thomson WW and Gibbs M (eds) Biosynthesis and Function of Plant Lipids. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MD, pp. 1–15Google Scholar
  142. Sun G, Kinter MT and Anderson VE (2003) Mass spectro-metric characterization of mitochondrial electron transport complexes: subunits of the rat heart ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase. J Mass Spectrom 38: 531–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tai H and Jaworski JG (1993) 3-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is not similar to other condensing enzymes of fatty acid synthase. Plant Physiol 103: 1361–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tamada T, Feese MD, Ferri SR, Kato Y, Yajima R, Toguri T and Kuroki R (2004) Substrate recognition and selectivity of plant glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPATs) from Cucurbita moscata and Spinacea oleracea. Acta Crystallogr D 60: 13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Thelen JJ and Ohlrogge JB (2002a) Metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. Metab Eng 4: 12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Thelen JJ and Ohlrogge JB (2002b) The multisubunit acetyl-CoA carboxylase is strongly associated with the chloroplast envelope through non-ionic interactions to the carboxyltrans-ferase subunits. Arch Biochem Biophys 400: 245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Todd J, Post-Beittenmiller D and Jaworski JG (1999) KCS1 encodes a fatty acid elongase 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase affecting wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 17: 119–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Trenkamp S, Martin W and Tietjen K (2004) Specific and differential inhibition of very-long-chain fatty acid elon-gases from Arabidopsis thaliana by different herbicides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 11903–11908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tumaney AW, Shekar S and Rajasekharan R (2001) Identification, purification, and characterization of monoacyl-glycerol acyltransferase from developing peanut cotyledons. J Biol Chem 276: 10847–10852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Turnbull AP, Rafferty JB, Sedelnikova SE, Slabas AR, Sch-ierer TP, Kroon JTM, Simon JW, Fawcett T, Nishida I, Murata N and Rice DW (2001) Analysis of the structure, substrate specificity, and mechanism of squash glycerol-3-phosphate (1)-acyltransferase. Structure 9: 347–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Van de Loo FJ, Broun P, Turner S and Somerville C (1995) An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 6743–6747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Voelker TA, Worrell AC, Anderson L, Bleibaum J, Fan C, Hawkins DJ, Radke SE and Davies HM (1992) Fatty acid biosynthesis redirected to medium chains in transgenic oilseed plants. Science 257: 72–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Voelker TA, Hayes TR, Cranmer AM, Turner JC and Davies HM (1996) Genetic engineering of a quantitative trait — Metabolic and genetic parameters influencing the accumulation of laurate in rapeseed. Plant J 9: 229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. von Wettstein-Knowles P (1993) Waxes, cutin and suberin. In: Moore TS Jr (ed) Lipid Metabolism in Plants. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 127–166Google Scholar
  155. Wada H, Gombos Z and Murata N (1990) Enhancement of chilling tolerance of a cyanobacterium by genetic manipulation of fatty acid desaturation. Nature 347: 200–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. White SW, Zheng J, Zhang Y-M and Rock CO (2005) The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu Rev Biochem 74: 791–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wittig I and Schägger H (2008) Features and applications of blue-native and clear-native electrophoresis. Proteomics 8: 3974–3990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wu G, Truksa M, Datla N, Vrinten P, Bauer J, Zank T, Cirpus P, Heinz E and Qiu X (2005) Stepwise engineering to produce high yields of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants. Nat Biotechnol 23: 1013–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Xu XJ, Dietrich CR, Lessire R, Nikolau BJ and Schnable PS (2002) The endoplasmic reticulum-associated maize GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-coenzyme A elon-gase involved in the production of cuticular waxes. Plant Physiol 128: 924–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhang Y-M, Rao MS, Heath RJ, Price AC, Olson AJ, Rock CO and White SW (2001) Identification and analysis of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) docking site on β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III. J Biol Chem 276: 8231–8238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Zhang Y-M, Wu B, Zheng J and Rock CO (2003) Key residues responsible for acyl carrier protein and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabG) interaction. J Biol Chem 278: 52935–52943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zheng Z, Xia Q, Dauk M, Shen W, Selvaraj G and Zou J (2003) Arabidopsis AtGPAT1, a member of the membrane-bound glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene family, is essential for tapetum differentiation and male fertility. Plant Cell 15: 1872–1887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zornetzer GA, Fox BG and Markley JL (2006) Solution structures of spinach acyl carrier protein with decanoate and stearate. Biochemistry 45: 5217–5227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian P. Brown
    • 1
  • Antoni R. Slabas
    • 1
    Email author
  • John B. Rafferty
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Durham, South RoadDurhamUK
  2. 2.Krebs Institute for Biomolecular Research, Department of Molecular Biology and BiotechnologyUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations