The Genesis and History of Twardowski’s Theory of Actions and Products
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Kazimierz Twardowski was born in 1866 in Vienna where he later studied and joined the circle of Brentano’s followers, which included Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Karl Stumpf, and others. In 1892 he visited Wundt’s psychological laboratory in Leipzig and studied shortly under Karl Stumpf in Halle. In 1894, his thesis Zur Lehre vom Inhalt und Gegenstand der Vorstellungen (On the Content and Object of Presentation) presented for the Habilitation qualified him as assistant professor. In 1895, he moved to Lvov (Lemberg) where he held a professorship at the Jan Kazimierz University for 35 years. Kazimierz Twardowski died in 1938.
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