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According to the Greek concept of “motor”, one of the first liquid state motors was unquestionably the float that was transported by the current of rivers or the tides of the sea. These spontaneous machines were later copied, transforming them into blades and turbines. It soon became clear that the latter two were also reversible, that is, capable of rotating when immersed in moving water and movable when rotated in still waters. The first wheeled ship designed with great skill and without any mechanical errors dates to the 4th century A.D.: a war ship.
Water, which requires a moderate energy to be raised, can in turn provide a moderate amount of power when it falls upon a paddle wheel or when it pulls it. Both are confirmed by literary evidence from sources and clear descriptions in treatises as well as important relics, the most famous of which is unquestionably the wheel of Venafro.
KeywordsBlade Rotor Helical Gear Hydraulic Motor Floating Mill Paddle Wheel
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