Hier-en-nu, het zelf en het lichaam

  • P. van Burken
Chapter

Samenvatting

De mentaal-emotionele vermogens van de patiënt bepalen de wijze waarop patiënten met gezondheid en ziekte omgaan. Mindfulnesstraining verbetert de mentale vermogens rond overzicht hebben, aandacht, lichaamsbewustzijn, emotieregulatie en desidentificatie. Verbeteringen in deze processen laten zich gemakkelijk vertalen naar bijvoorbeeld een patiënt met chronische pijn en kinesiofobie. De patiënt leert door de mindfulnesstraining meer met de aandacht in het hier-en-nu te zijn, waardoor hij adequater informatie kan verzamelen en reageren. Hij zit minder ‘in zijn hoofd’ en meer ‘in het nu’. Dit schakelen van hoofd naar actuele ervaring wordt door verschillende hersennetwerken verzorgd en is trainbaar. Mindfulnesstraining gericht op lichamelijke sensaties speelt daarbij een centrale rol.

Literatuur

  1. 1.
    Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM, Gard T, et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. 2011;191(1):36–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hölzel BK, Lazar SW, Gard T, Schuman-Olivier Z, Vago DV, Ott U. How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011;6(6):537–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tang YY, Leve LD. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy. Transl Behav Med. 2016;6(1):63–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tang YY, Lu Q, Feng H, Tang R, Posner MI. Short-term meditation increases blood flow in anterior cingulate cortex and insula. Front Psychol. 2015;6:212.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tang YY, Holzel BK, Posner MI. The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015;16(4):213–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brewer JA, Worhunsky PD, Gray JR, Tang Y, Weber J, Kober H. Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. PNAS. 2011;108(50):20254–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fox KC, Nijeboer S, Dixon ML, Floman JL, Ellamil M, Rumak SP, et al. Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014;43:48–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fox KC, Dixon ML, Nijeboer S, Girn M, Floman JL, Lifshitz M, et al. Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: A review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;65:208–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vincent JL, Kahn I, Snyder AZ, Raichle ME, Buckner RL. Evidence for a frontoparietal control system revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100(6):3328–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davidson RJ. Emotion and affective style: hemispheric substrates. Psychol Sci. 1992;3:39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF, et al. Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosom Med. 2003;65(4):564–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vago DR, Silbersweig DA. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:296.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vago DR. Mapping modalities of self-awareness in mindfulness practice: a potential mechanism for clarifying habits of mind. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    James W. The priciples of psychology. New York: Henry Holt; 1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Damasio AR. The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt; 1999.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Craig AD. How do you feel – now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:59–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Farb NAS, Segal ZV, Mayberg H, Bean J, McKeon D, Fatima Z, Anderson AK AK. Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Scan. 2007;2:313–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kerr CE, Sacchet MD, Lazar SW, Moore CI, Jones SR. Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jha APJ, Stanley EA, Baime MJ. What does mindfulnesstraining strengthen? Working memory capacity as a functional marker of traing succes. In: Baer RA, editor. Assessing mindfulness and acceptance processes in clients. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications; 2010. pag. 207–21.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kerr CE, Shaw JR, Wasserman RH, Chen VW, Kanojia A, Bayer T, Kelley JM. Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training. Exp Brain Res. 2008;188:317–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Garland EL, Howard MO. Mindfulness-oriented recovery enhancement reduces pain attentional bias in chronic pain patients. Psychother Psychosom. 2013;82(5):311–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kristeller JL. Mindfulness meditation. In: Lehrer PM, Woolfolk RL, Sime WE, editors. Principles and practice of stress management. 3rd ed. New York: The Guilford Press; 2007. pag. 393–427.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chan D, Woollacott M. Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved? J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13(6):651–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, onderdeel van Springer Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. van Burken
    • 1
  1. 1.EindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations