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Role of Radiotherapy

  • Valentina Borzillo
  • Sara Falivene
  • Vincenzo Ravo
  • Rossella Di Franco
  • Paolo MutoEmail author
Part of the Updates in Surgery book series (UPDATESSURG)

Abstract

In the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with total mesorectal excision (TME) significantly reduces local recurrence. Local recurrence of rectal cancer (LRRC) occurs in 5–10% of patients [1, 2, 3, 4]. LRRC represents an important clinical challenge, with significant symptoms (severe pain, rectal bleeding, discharge, and change in bowel habits), poor quality of life, and poor survival [5]. In 40–60% of patients, LRRC is the only manifestation of disease; in the remaining patients, distant metastases are detected within a median of 6 months after the diagnosis of the LRRC [6]. Prognosis is poor, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of ~9%, which increases to ~57% after potentially curative (R0) surgery. Radical surgery is the only option to control this disease [7, 8]. However, curative R0 resection can be achieved in only about 20–30% of all patients with LRRC [1]. In addition, it is important to select patients carefully for radical surgery due to high postoperative morbidity (15–68%) [9, 10, 11, 12] and mortality [13, 14, 15, 16] rates. Radiotherapy is an effective approach for relieving symptoms and improving local control (LC) in patients with LRRC.

Keywords

Overall Survival Rectal Cancer Total Mesorectal Excision Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Local Control Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Borzillo
  • Sara Falivene
  • Vincenzo Ravo
  • Rossella Di Franco
  • Paolo Muto
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Radiotherapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Radiant and Metabolic TherapyIstituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS Fondazione G. PascaleNaplesItaly

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