• Valeria Panebianco
  • Jurgen J. Fütterer
Part of the A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting book series (AZRPR)


  • 20 % of general population have claustrophobia.

  • Patient positioning important: Try prone position or head outside the bore or gantry.

  • Mild sedation (e.g., benzodiazepine) can be applied.

Cervical Carcinoma

  • Cervical epithelium can undergo a series of gradual histologic changes from progressively severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive carcinoma.

  • Invasive carcinoma spreads by direct extension to adjacent organs: vagina, pelvic wall, bladder, and rectum. Metastatic lymphadenopathy occurs commonly in the pelvic lymph nodes, but it also involves the periaortic chains in about 20 % of patients.

  • The identification of cervical carcinoma in MRI is simple because the high-signal-intensity lesion contrasts with the marked low-signal-intensity cervical stroma on T2W images. Areas of coagulative necrosis may appear as small foci of lower signal intensity within the tumor mass.

  • Tumors responding to treatment generally lose signal intensity on T2W images.

  • T1W images...


Undescended Testis Hemorrhagic Cystitis Ileal Conduit Myxoid Liposarcoma Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeria Panebianco
    • 1
  • Jurgen J. Fütterer
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Nuclear MedicineRadboudumcNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical MedicineUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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