PET/CT in Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Tumors

  • Stefano Fanti
  • Elena Tabacchi
  • Hanna Svirydenka
  • Cristina Nanni


Primary hepatobiliary malignancies include liver tumors, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). The prognosis for hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancies is dismal, with a 5-year survival rate ranging from 5% to 20%. Accurate detection, diagnosis, and staging may lead to more appropriate treatments and improved clinical outcomes. As surgical resection is the primary curative option for most hepatobiliary/pancreatic cancers, earlier and more correct detection may increase the likelihood of timely intervention [1].


Positron Emission Tomography Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cystic Neoplasm Gallbladder Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Lan BY, Kwee SA, Wong LL (2012) Positron emission tomography in hepatobiliary and pancreatic malignancies: a review. Am J Surg 204:232–241.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jadvar H (2012) Hepatocellular carcinoma and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: potential role of other positron emission tomography radiotracers. Semin Nucl Med 42:247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Gaetano AM, Rufini V, Castaldi P et al (2012) Clinical applications of 18F-FDG-PET in the management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors. Abdom Imaging 37:983–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sharma B, Martin A, Zerizer I (2013) Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in liver imaging. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI 34:66–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sacks A, Peller PJ, Surasi DS et al (2011) Value of PET/CT in the management of primary hepatobiliary tumors, Part 2. AJR Am J Roentgenol 197:W260–W265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Torizuka T, Tamaki N, Inokuma T et al (1995) In vivo assessment of glucose metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma with FDG-PET. J Nucl Med 36:1811–1817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Ishizu H et al (2001) Usefulness of positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose for predicting outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 96:1877–1880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ho CL, Chen S, Yeung DW, Cheng TK (2007) Dual-tracer PET/CT imaging in evaluation of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. J Nucl Med 48:902–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kawaoka T, Aikata H, Takaki S et al (2009) FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography for the detection of extraepatic metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Res 39:134–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    D’Arienzo M, Chiaramida P, Chiacchiararelli L et al (2012) 90Y PET-based dosimetry after selective internal radiotherapy treatments. Nucl Med Commun 33:633–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grassi I, Nanni C, Allegri V et al (2012) The clinical use of PET with (11)C-acetate. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2:33–47.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Delbeke D, Pinson CW (2003) 11C-acetate: a new tracer for the evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Nucl Med 2003; 44:222–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petrowsky H, Wildbrett P, Husarik DB et al (2006) Impact of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography on staging and management of gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. J Hepatol 45:43–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kluge R, Schmidt F, Caca K et al (2001) Positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for diagnosis and staging of bile duct cancer. Hepatology 33:1029–1035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chung YE, Kim MJ, Park YN et al (2009) Varying appearance of cholangiocarcinoma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. RadioGraphics 29:673–700.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Klatskin G (1965) Adenocarcinoma of the hepatic duct at its bifurcation within the porta hepatis. An unusual tumor with distinctive clinical and pathological features. Am J Med 38:241–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (1997) Classification of primary liver cancer. Kanehara, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Corvera CU, Blumgart LH, Akhurst T et al (2008) 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography influences management decisions in patients with biliary cancer. J Am Coll Surg 206:57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fritscher-Ravens A, Bohuslavizki KH, Broering DC et al (2001) FDG PET in the diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Nucl Med Commun 22:1277–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chikamoto A, Tsuji T, Takamori H (2006) The diagnostic efficacy of FDG-PET in the local recurrence of hilar bile duct cancer. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 13:403–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Charbel H, Al-Kawas FH (2011) Cholangiocarcinoma: epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and diagnosis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 13:182–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aljiffry M, Walsh MJ, Molinari M (2009) Advances in diagnosis, treatment and palliation of cholangiocarcinoma: 1990–2009. World J Gastroenterol 15:4240–4262.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Valero V 3rd, Cosgrove D, Herman JM, Pawlik TM (2012) Management of perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in the era of multimodal therapy. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:481–495.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sahani DV, Bonaffini PA, Catalano OA et al (2012) State-of-the-Art PET/CT of the pancreas: current role and emerging in dications. RadioGraphics 32:1133–1158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rufini V, Baum RP, Castaldi P et al (2012) Role of PET/CT in the functional imaging of endocrine pancreatic tumors. Abdom Imaging 37:1004–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Milan SA, Yeo CJ (2012) Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Curr Opin Oncol 24:46–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Fanti
    • 1
  • Elena Tabacchi
    • 1
  • Hanna Svirydenka
    • 1
  • Cristina Nanni
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuclear Medicine Unit, Policlinico St. Orsola-MalpighiUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations