Imaging of the Urinary Tract in Children
The principle that guides imaging of the pediatric genitourinary tract is the same that guides imaging elsewhere in the body of the child: judicious use of imaging while minimizing ionizing radiation exposure  and unnecessary sedation. Ultrasound (US) is the main imaging modality of the genitourinary tract, providing excellent images of the kidneys and bladder. An abnormally dilated ureter is also easily imaged, especially at the levels of the kidney and bladder. Doppler provides additional information regarding vascular flow and is especially helpful in evaluating the main renal artery and veins as well as the arcuate vessels. US contrast agents are used to further evaluate vascular flow of the kidneys, intrarenal masses, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) . The main downside of US is that it provides little functional imaging, instead mainly revealing the physical appearance of the urinary tract (UT).
KeywordsAutosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease Clear Cell Sarcoma Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Magnetic Resonance Urography
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