NIV in the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Failure: Emerging Indications

  • Stefano Nava
  • Francesco Fanfulla


This is definitely an emerging field of application. It has been known for some time now that the period following thoracic surgery and major abdominal surgery can be complicated by hypoxia. This is almost always related to poor mobility of the diaphragm, which can be the consequence of traumatic damage during the operation, a pharmacological effect of the anesthetics and/or analgesics on the phrenic nerve or more banally the intense pain that prevents the patient from expanding the respiratory system adequately (i.e., the chest cage and abdomen). Decreased diaphragmatic function is associated with reduced pulmonary compliance and areas of atelectasia, which are the main risk factors for the development of pneumonia. This much feared complication of the post-operative period can, in some cases, be fatal.


Acute Respiratory Failure Flail Chest Diaphragmatic Function Negative Pressure Ventilation Traumatic Damage 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Respiratory and Critical Care UnitAO Sant’ Orsola Malpighi HospitalBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Sleep Medicine UnitFondazione Salvatore Maugeri Division PneumologicaPaviaItaly

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