Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a, Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism, and Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy

  • Lee S. WeinsteinEmail author


Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is a congenital disorder caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of the GNAS gene encoding Gsα, the ubiquitously expressed G protein α-subunit that is required for intracellular cAMP generation in response to hormones and other extracellular signals. AHO patients develop short stature, brachydactyly, subcutaneous ossifications, and, in some cases, neurocognitive impairment. Due to genomic imprinting of GNAS, mutations on the maternal allele also lead to multihormone resistance and early-onset obesity, a condition known as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a. In contrast paternal mutations only lead to AHO, also known as pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. In some instances, the same Gsα mutations are associated with a more severe form of ectopic ossification known as progressive osseous heteroplasia.


Parathyroid hormone Osteodystrophy G protein Genomic imprinting Obesity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metabolic Diseases BranchNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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