Refractory Hypoparathyroidism

  • Laura MasiEmail author


Hypoparathyroidism, a hormonal insufficiency state, is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia which are the result of a deficiency in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion or action. The majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are well controlled under conventional treatment with calcium and vitamin D analogs.

However, this treatment may be difficult to manage, especially in the following situations: (1) in the context of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, (2) in all conditions of hypoparathyroidism associated with malabsorption (celiac disease), and (3) activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (Linglart et al. 96:3308–3312, 2011). These situations are indicated as refractory hypoparathyroidism. In addition, some conditions of hypocalcemia which are not always follow-on hypoparathyroidism may be resistant to administration of oral calcium and vitamin D and will be here indicated as refractory hypocalcemia due to: (1) hungry bone syndrome, (2) abdominal surgery, and (3) hypomagnesemia


Hypocalcemia Hypoparathyroidism Refractory 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Metabolic Bone Diseases UnitUniversity Hospital AOU-Careggi, University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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