Laws of Thermodynamic Equilibrium

  • Egidio Landi Degl’Innocenti
Part of the UNITEXT for Physics book series (UNITEXTPH)


In the previous chapters we have reviewed the fundamental properties of the radiation field and those of atomic systems. Before we move on to a quantum description of the interaction between these systems, is it necessary to study, in all generality, their physical characteristics in the particular case of thermodynamic equilibrium. On the one hand this study is interesting by itself, since in many cases the physical systems (whether they are the object of laboratory experiments or astronomical observations) can be considered, at least in first approximation, in conditions close to those of thermodynamic equilibrium. On the other hand, the laws that can be derived, being based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, are extremely general and can therefore provide very useful control methods to test any theory (more or less approximate), that can be used for the description of the systems and their interactions.


Quantum State Thermodynamic Equilibrium Normalisation Constant Black Body Radiation Helmholtz Free Energy 
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  1. Schrödinger, E.: Statistical Thermodynamics. Heinemann, London (1961) Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Egidio Landi Degl’Innocenti
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Fisica e AstronomiaUniversità degli Studi di FirenzeFlorenceItaly

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