Nutrients and Whole-Body Energy Metabolism: The Impact of Physical Exercise


Food is required as a fuel for the maintenance of energy-requiring processes that sustain life. Energy is needed to preserve the physicochemical environment of the body (homeostasis) and to sustain the organism’s activities. Although there are large inter-individual differences in energy requirements, much of the variance can be ascribed to fat-free mass, age, sex, and amount of physical activity. Genetic factors also appear to play an important role (see Chapters 1 and 4) [1].


Physical Activity Energy Expenditure Carnitine Acetyltransferase Adiposity Signal Total Daily Physical Activity Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sport Sciences, Nutrition and HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Research Center of MetabolismIRCCS Policlinico San Donato MilaneseMilanItaly

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