Human Evolution and Physical Exercise: The Concept of Being “Born to Run”


Born to Run was the third album produced by the American singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen. It was released by Columbia Records on August 25, 1975. The same title was used in the following decades for: at least one novel, an episode in the TV series Terminator, a book on a Mexican tribe of extreme runners, and it even appeared on the cover page of Nature, in November 2004. The common denominator of all the uses of Born to Run is the recognition of the need of humans to run in order to survive.


Physical Exercise Total Energy Expenditure Marathon Runner Loud Call Total Daily Energy Expenditure 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sport Sciences, Nutrition and HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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