The History of Surgical Research



There are different options available for classifying the history of surgical research by social and cultural eras. A simple classification divides surgical research history into two periods: the first spans the centuries from Antiquity to the Early Modern and the second from the Early Modern to the present. The first “operations” were trepanations. In the ancient world, research activity that can be considered “surgical” rather than just “anatomical” may be attributed to Galen of Pergamon. Throughout the Middle Ages the Church impeded surgical research by opposing any manipulation of a dead body. During the Renaissance research flourished. To date, only nine research surgeons have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Many eminent research surgeons, despite lives spent pursuing experimentation and making contributions to medicine, have not been honored with such recognition.


Nobel Prize Nobel Laureate Surgical Research Research Training Program French Surgeon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiac Surgery UnitSan Filippo Neri HospitalRomeItaly

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