Research on Cardiopulmonary Bypass in North America

  • Manon Caouette


The second half of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of cardiovascular surgery. The world recognized that this breakthrough began with the development of the heart–lung machine. In the mid-1950s, numerous teams around the world shared a common goal to build a machine to take over the function of the heart and lungs during open heart surgery. Among them, five investigators working in different academic centres in North America were actively engaged each with a different idea of how it should function. John Gibbon of Philadelphia was the person with the longest commitment to the development of a heart–lung machine. He finally performed the first intracardiac repair using a pump oxygenator in 1953. This achievement stimulated rapid development of the knowledge base and equipment necessary for the accurate diagnosis and successful intracardiac operation worldwide.


Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Open Heart Surgery Blood Pump International Business Machine 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PerfusionIUCPQQuébecCanada

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