The History of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Before the Introduction of Extracorporeal Circulation

  • Alessandro Frigiola


This chapter retraces the historical steps of cardiac surgery before the advent of extracorporeal circulation and highlights the great work done by physicians and researchers in laying the foundations for the development of cardiac surgery. Among the most significant figures quoted are Thomas Bevill Peacock and Maude Abbott who, with their studies on congenital malformations, revealed the anatomy of cardiopathies, and Vivien Thomas who, thanks to his manual dexterity, introduced the technique used later by Blalock to create the pulmonary systemic shunt. The chapter presents the most relevant surgical techniques created and developed by surgeons such as Robert Gross, who in 1938 successfully closed the first Botallo ductus and in 1952 closed the first atrial septal defect; Alfred Blalock, who made the first pulmonary systemic shunt and experimented with some techniques for aortic coarctation; Dammann, who made the first pulmonary artery banding; Blalock and Hanlon, who introduced the atrioseptectomy technique; Marc de Leval and Vishnevsky, who modified the technique of the Blalock–Taussig shunt, and Carlon, Glenn, and Darbinian, who introduced cavopulmonary anastomosis.


Congenital Heart Disease Subclavian Artery Patent Ductus Arteriosus Atrial Septal Defect Extracorporeal Circulation 
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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardiac Surgery UnitI.R.C.C.S Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato MilaneseItaly

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