Advertisement

Leprosy pp 27-38 | Cite as

Host Response to M. leprae

  • Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues
Chapter

Abstract

Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is associated with damaging inflammatory lesions in the skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy’s hallmark is a broad clinical spectrum of pathology determined by the host immune response. Whereas vigorous cell-mediated immune response leads to the tuberculoid form, specific cellular unresponsiveness to M. leprae antigens leads to lepromatous leprosy. A variety of mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity have been identified and postulated to play a role in the development of cellular immunity in leprosy. Additionally, host genetic background and the presence of intestinal helminths have been associated with susceptibility to M. leprae infection and its severity in humans. However, what triggers this remarkable spectrum of cellular immune responses to this organism in humans, and how, is still not fully understood.

Keywords

Natural Killer Cell Reactive Oxygen Intermediate Leprosy Patient Intestinal Helminth Lepromatous Lepromatous 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Scollard DM, Adams LB, Gillis TP, Krahenbuhl JL, Truman RW, Williams DL (2006) The continuing challenges of leprosy. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(2):338–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maeda Y, Gidoh M, Ishii N, Mukai C, Makino M (2003) Assessment of cell mediated immunogenicity of Mycobacterium leprae-derived antigens. Cell Immunol 222:69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Uematsu S, Ng YW, Legaspi A, Liu PT, Cole ST, Godowski PJ, Maeda Y, Sarno EN, Norgard MV, Brennan PJ, Akira S, Rea TH, Modlin RL (2003) Activation and regulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 1 in human leprosy. Nat Med 9:525–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Massone C, Nunzi E, Ribeiro-Rodrigues R, Talhari C, Talhari S, Schettini APM, Parente JNT, Brunasso AMG, Puntoni M, Clapasson A, Noto S, Cerroni L (2010) T regulatory cells and plasmocytoid dentritic cells in hansen disease: a new insight into pathogenesis? Am J Dermatopathol 32:251–256Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schlesinger LS, Horwitz MA (1991) Phenolic glycolipid-1 of Mycobacterium leprae binds complement component C3 in serum and mediates phagocytosis by human monocytes. J Exp Med 174:1031–1038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Modlin RL, Melancon-Kaplan J, Young SMM, Pirmez C, Kino H, Convit J, Rea TH, Bloom BR (1988) Learning from lesions: patterns of tissue inflammation in leprosy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:1213–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ribeiro-Rodrigues R, Resende Co T, Rojas R, Toossi Z, Dietze R, Boom WH, Maciel E, Hirsch CS (2006) A role for CD4+ CD25+ T cells in regulation of the immune response during human tuberculosis. Clin Exp Immunol 144(1):25–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sieling PA, Chatterjee D, Porcelli SA, Prigozy TI, Mazzaccaro RJ, Soriano T, Bloom BR, Brenner MB, Kronenberg M, Brennan PJ, Modlin RL (1995) CD-1-restricted T cell recognition of microbial lipoglycan antigens. Science 269:227–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sibley LD, Krahenbuhl JL (1987) Mycobacterium leprae-burdened macrophages are refractory to activation by gamma interferon. Infect Immun 55:446–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Steinhofff U, Wand-Wurttenberger A, Bremerich A, Kaufmann SHE (1991) Mycobacterium leprae renders Schwann cells and mononuclear phagocytes susceptible or resistant to killer cells. Infect Immun 59:684–688Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holzer TJ, Nelson KE, Crispen RG, Anderson BR (1986) Mycobacterium leprae fails to stimulate phagocytic cell superoxide anion generation. Infect Immun 51:514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salgame P, Abrams JS, Clayberger C, Goldstein H, Convit J, Modlin RL, Bloom BR (1991) Differing lymphokine profiles of functional subsets of human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science 254:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garcia VE, Uyemura K, Sieling PA, Ochoa MT, Morita CT, Okamura H, Kurimoto M, Rea TH, Modlin RL (1999) IL-18 promotes type 1 cytokine production from NK cells and T cells in human intracellular infection. J Immunol 162:6114–6121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Resende Co T, Hirsch CS, Toossi Z, Dietze R, Ribeiro-Rodrigues R (2007) Intestinal helminth co-infection has a negative impact on both anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunity and clinical response to tuberculosis therapy. Clin Exp Immunol 147(1):45–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Diniz LM, Zandonade E, Dietze R, Pereira FE, Ribeiro-Rodrigues R (2001) Short report: do intestinal nematodes increase the risk for multibacillary leprosy? Am J Trop Med Hyg 65(6):852–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Diniz LM, Magalhães EF, Pereira FE, Dietze R, Ribeiro-Rodrigues R (2010) Presence of intestinal helminths decreases T helper type 1 responses in tuberculoid leprosy patients and may increase the risk for multi-bacillary leprosy. Clin Exp Immunol 161(1):142–150PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Núcleo de Doenças Infecciosas and Departamento de PatologiaUniversidade Federal do Espirito SantoVitoriaBrazil

Personalised recommendations