Pathophysiology in Tetralogy of Fallot

  • Gabriele Egidy Assenza
  • Michael J. Landzberg


Nowhere else in adult medicine does the world of congenital heart disease interdigitate so well with acquired heart disease as in the management of adult survivors of Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Progressive clinical dysfunction due to the combination of valvular pathology, abnormal loading conditions, maladap tive myocardial performance and abnormal interventricular and ventricular arterial coupling can give the keen observer insights that have application throughout the wider cardiovascular practice.


Outflow Tract Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Outflow Tract Pulmonary Valve Replacement Heart Tube 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Boston Adult Congenital Heart and Pulmonary Hypertension Program, Children’s Hospital Boston, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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