Anatomy of Tetralogy of Fallot

  • Carla Frescura
  • Gaetano Thiene


It was Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot who, in 1888, first described the clinicopathological correlates of the “maladie bleue” [1]. The lesion that he identified was the association of interventricular communication, sub pulmonary stenosis, biventricular origin of the aorta and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. From the translation in English by Allwork in 1988 [2], come the following significant passages of Fallot's original work:

... during the last few years, three cases of a rare and curious disease have passed before our eyes.observed during their lives and afterwards at necropsy, three patients affected by the illness called “maladie bleue”.

... we thought that the “maladie bleue” was caused by these lesions multiple but constant, so together they constituted a type perfectly defined.

All the three patients had... an abnormal interventricular communication and in each of them the ventricular septal defect was in the same place, the superior part of the septum...the pulmonary artery was narrowed and in each there was subarterial as well as valvular stenosis...there was ventricular hypertrophy...the aorta deviated to the right...took equal origin from both ventricles.”


Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary Valve Left Ventricular Outflow Tract 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla Frescura
    • 1
  • Gaetano Thiene
  1. 1.Department of Cardiological, Thoracic and Vascular SciencesUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly

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