Late Arrhythmias: Current Approaches

  • Sara Foresti
  • Maria Cristina Tavera
  • Pierpaolo Lupo
  • Riccardo Cappato


ToF represents a good example of the many challenges in treating patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD). This abnormality is not infrequent, being the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) after 1 year of age with an incidence of about 10% of all CHD [2]. Surgery for correction of the anatomic and hemodynamic imbalance associated with ToF was first introduced in the mid fifties and became common practice in the sixties. Continuous improvements in surgical therapy have led to a relatively large population of adult patients with ToF reaching the age of 40 to 50 years in good clinical condition and with an extended life expectancy. Despite these improvements, a significant proportion of ToF patients still present with a higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population [3].


Congenital Heart Disease Sudden Death Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Arrhythmia Right Ventricle 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Foresti
    • 1
  • Maria Cristina Tavera
  • Pierpaolo Lupo
  • Riccardo Cappato
  1. 1.Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology CenterIRCCS Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato Milanese (Mi)Italy

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