Other Surgical Procedures

  • Alessandro Giamberti


ToF is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. If left untreated, it carries 33% mortality in the first year of life and 50% mortality in the first 3 years of life [1]. There are few patients with ToF that reach adulthood in natural history or after one or more palliative procedures.


Right Ventricular Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Right Ventricular Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bertranou EG, Blackstone EH, Hazelrig JB et al (1978) Life expectancy without surgery in tetralogy of Fallot. Am J Cardiol 42:458–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hickey EJ, Veldtman G, Bradley TJ et al (2009) Late risk of outcome for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot from an inception cohort spanning four decades. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 35:156–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bacha EA, Scheule AM, Zurakowski D et al (2001) Long-term results after early primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 122:154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Park CS, Lee JR, Lim HG et al (2010) The long-term result of total repair for tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 38:311–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Srinathan SK, Bonser RS, Sethia B et al (2004) Changing practice of cardiac surgery in adult patients with congenital heart disease. Heart 91:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giamberti A, Chessa M, Abella R et al (2009) Morbidity and mortality risk factors in adults with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac reoperation. Ann Thorac Surg 88:1284–1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morales DLS, Zafar F, Arrington KA et al (2008) Repeat sternotomy in congenital heart surgery: no longer a risk factor. Ann Thorac Surg 86:897–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vida VL, Berggren H, Brawn WJ et al (2007) Risk of surgery for congenital heart disease in adult: a multicentered European study. Ann Thorac Surg 83: 161–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Padalino MA, Speggiorin S, Rizzoli G et al (2007) Midterm results of surgical intervention for congenital heart disease in adults: an Italian multi center study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 134:106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frigiola A, Giamberti A, Chessa M et al (2006) Right ventricular restoration during pulmonary valve implantation in adults with congenital heart disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 29(Suppl I):S279-285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Therrien J, Siu SC, McLaughlin PR et al (2000) Pulmonary valve replacement in adults late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: are we operating too late? J Am Coll Cardiol 36:1670–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kirklin JW, Barrat-Boyes BG (1993) Cardiac surgery: morphology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, techniques, results, and indications, 2 edn. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dittrich S, Vogel M, Dahnert I et al (1999) Surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot in adults today. Clin Cardiol 22:460–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Presbitero P, Prever SB, Contraffatto I, Morea M (1996) As originally published in 1988: Results of total correction of tetralogy of Fallot performer in adults (Updated in 1996). Ann Thorac Surg 61:1870–1873PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Atik FA, Atik E, da Cunha CR et al (2004) Long-term results of correction of tetralogy of Fallot in adulthood. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 25:250–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Horer J, Friebe J, Schreiber C et al (2005) Correction of tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect in adults. Ann Thorac Surg 80:2285–2292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nollert GD, Fischlein T, Bouterwek S et al (1997) Long-term results of total repair of tetralogy of Fallot in adulthood: 35 years follow-up in 104 patients corrected at the age of 18 or older. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 45:178–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    D'Udekem Y, Pasquet A, Van Caenegem O et al (2004) Reoperation for severe right ventricular dilatation after tetralogy of Fallot repair: pulmonary infundibuloplasty should be added to homograft implantation. J Heart Valve Dis 13:307–312Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D'Udekem Y, Rubay J, Ovaert C (2001) Failure of right ventricular recovery of fallot patients after pulmonary valve replacement: delay of reoperation or surgical technique? J Am Coll Cardiol 37:2008–2009Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    del Nido PJ (2006) Surgical management of right ventricular dysfunction late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: right ventricular remodeling surgery. Semin Thorac Surg Pediatr Card Surg Ann 9:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giamberti A, Chessa M, Ballotta A et al (2011) Functional tricuspid valve regurgitation in adults with congenital heart disease: an emerging problem. J Heart Valve Dis 20:565–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sugimoto T, Okada M, Ozaki N et al (1999) Long term evaluation of treatment for functional tricuspid regurgitation with regurgitant volume: characteristic differences based on primary cardiac lesions. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 117: 463–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cohn LH (1994) Tricuspid regurgitation secondary to mitral valve disease: when and how to repair. J Card Surg 9:237–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duran CH, Pomar JL, Colman T et al (1980) Is tricuspid valve repair necessary? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 80:849–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holper K, Haehnel JC, Augustin N, Schening F (1993) Surgical for tricuspid insufficiency: long term follow-up after De Vega annuloplasty. Thorac Cardiovasc Surgeon 41:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    De Paolis R, Bobbio M, Ottimo G et al (1990) De Vega tricuspid annuloplasty. Perioperative mortality and long term follow-up. J Cardiovasc Surg 31:512–517Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tang GH, David TE, Sing SK et al (2006) Tricuspid valve repair with an annuloplasty ringresults in improved long-term outcomes. Circulation 114 (Suppl I):I-577-I-581Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCarthy PM, Bhudia SK, Rajeswaran J et al (2004) Tricuspid valve repair: durability and risk factors for failure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127:674–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nakano K, Eishi K, Kosakai Y et al (1996) Ten-year experience with the Carpentier-Edwards pericardial xenograft in the tricuspid position. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 111:605–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Omata T, Kigawa I, Tohda E, Wanibuchi Y (2001) Comparison of durability of bioprostheses in tricuspid and mitral position. Ann Thorac Surg 71:S240-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Giamberti A, Chessa M, Abella R et al (2008) Surgical treatment of arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart defects. Int J Cardiol 129:37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roos-Hesselink J, Pelroth MG, McGhie J, Spitaels S (1995) Atrial arrhythmias in adults after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: correlation with clinical, exercise and echocardiographic findings. Circulation 91:2214–2219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Deanfield JE, McKenna WJ, Presbitero P et al (1984) Ventricular arrhythmia in repaired and unrepaired tetralogy of Fallot: relation to age, timing of repair and hemodynamic status. Br Heart J 52:77–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nollert G, Fischlein T, Bouterwek S et al (1997) Long-term survival in patients with repair of tetralogy of Fallot: 36-year follow-up of 490 survivors of the first year after surgical repair. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1374–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khairy P, Landzberg MJ, Gatzoulis MA et al (2004) Value of programmed ventricular stimulation after tetralogy of Fallot repair. A multicenter study. Circulation 109:1994–2000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gatzoulis MA, Balaji S, Webber SA et al (2000) Risk factors for arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a multicentre study. Lancet 365:975–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Giamberti A, Chessa M, Foresti S et al (2006) Combined atrial septal defect surgical closure and irrigated radiofrequency ablation in adult patients. Ann Thorac Surg 82:1327–1331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nakagawa H, Yamanashi WS, Pitha JV et al (1995) Comparison of in vivo temperature profile and lesion geometry for radiofrequency ablation with a saline-irrigated electrode versus temperature control in a canine thigh muscle preparation. Circulation 91:2264–2273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pomè G, Rossi C, Colucci V et al (1992) Late reoperations after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Cardio Thorac Surg 6:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dodds III GA, Warnes CA, Danielson G (1997) Aortic valve replacement after repair of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect or tetralogy of Fallot. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 113:736–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Niwa K, Perloff JK, Bhuta SM et al (2001) Structural abnormalities of great arterial walls in congenital heart disease: light and electron microscopic analyses. Circulation 103:393–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Niwa K, Siu SC, Webb GD, Gatzoulis MA (2002) Progressive aortic root dilatation in adults late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Circulation 106:1374–1378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Francois K, Zaqout M, Bové T et al (2010) The fate of the aortic root after early repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 37:1254–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stulak JM, Dearani JA, Burkhart HM et al (2010) Does the dilated ascending aorta in an adult with congenital heart disease require intervention? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140:S52-57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardio-Thoracic SurgeryIRCCS Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato Milanese (Mi)Italy

Personalised recommendations