ToF is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. If left untreated, it carries 33% mortality in the first year of life and 50% mortality in the first 3 years of life [1]. There are few patients with ToF that reach adulthood in natural history or after one or more palliative procedures.


Right Ventricular Tricuspid Valve Ventricular Septal Defect Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Right Ventricular Volume 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cardio-Thoracic SurgeryIRCCS Policlinico San DonatoSan Donato Milanese (Mi)Italy

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