Prognostic Evaluation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Athletes
Ventricular arrhythmias (VA) can occur in a variety of heart diseases as well as in normal persons. Although the normal range of the VA is still under debate, there is general agreement that frequent and or complex VA are an uncommon finding in normal subjects without any apparent structural heart disease. Therefore, some degree of VA very likely represents a marker of a pathological condition requiring accurate diagnostic assessment to determine the real impact of the VA in the clinical setting and its preventive and/or therapeutic implications. Generally, the normal range of VA varies from 10 to 100 ventricular premature ectopic beats (VPB) / 24 hour, whereas the complex forms (couplets, multiplets and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia) are usually absent in normal subjects. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (N,SVT) of more than 10-15 beats, with a rate >150 min., as well as sustained monomorphic or polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (SVT) should also be considered as malignant forms in healthy subjects without evident cardiovascular abnormalities. In fact, idiopathic ventricular tachyarrhythmia is not particularly rare cause of sudden cardiac death, ranging in the literature from 1% to 14% of patients less than 40 years old who have survived an episode of sudden unexpected cardiac arrest [1,2].
KeywordsSudden Death Ventricular Arrhythmia Ventricular Fibrillation Left Ventricular Mass Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Cobb LA, Baum RS, Alvarez H III, Schaffer WA (1975) Resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: 4 years follow-up. Circulation 51/52 (Suppl III): 223–228Google Scholar
- 17.Thiene G, Gambino A, Corrado D, Nava A (1986) The pathological spectrum underlying sudden death in athletes. New Trends in Arrhythmias 1:323–331Google Scholar
- 23.Philips M, Robinowitz M, Higgins JR, Boran KJ, Reed T, Virmani R (1986) Sudden cardiac death in Air Force recruits: a 20-year review. 256:2696–9Google Scholar
- 24.Wellens HJJ, Lemery R, Smeets JL, Brugada P, Gorgels AP, Cheriex EC, de Zwaan C (1992) Sudden arrhythmic death without overt heart disease. Circulation 85 (suppl I):I 92–97Google Scholar
- 25.Meissner MD, Lehmann MH, Steinman RT, Mosteller RD, Akhtar M, Calkins H, Cannom DS, Epstein AE, Fogoros RN, Bing Liem L, Marchlinski FE, Myerburg R, Veltri EP (1993) Ventricular fibrillation in patients without significant structural heart disease: A multicenter experience with implantable cardioverter-dwfibrillator therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 21:1406–1412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Maron BJ, Shirani J, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Roberts WC (1993) Cardiovascular causes of “athletic field” deaths: analysis of sudden death in 84 competitive athletes (abstr.). Circulation 88 (Suppl I):I–50Google Scholar
- 27.Corrado D., Thiene G., Nava A., Basso C, Dalla Volta S (1993) Sports-related sudden death in young people (abstr.). Circulation 88, n.4, part II: I–51Google Scholar