Basic Components of Immune System Regulation

  • S. M. Opal
Conference paper


“All Biological Systems are Infinitely Complex, Unifying Concepts are an Illusion Created by Simple Minds in an Attempt to Explain the Unexplainable”—Corollary to Murphy’s Law—Book 2.


Human Immune Response Stress Hormone Response Immune System Regulation Adoptive Immunity Eicosanoid Pathway 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dinarello CA (1996) Biological basis for interleukin-1 in disease. Blood 87:2095–2147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Opal SM, Keith JC Jr (1996) Potential of human interleukin-11 in bacterial sepsis. In: J-L Vincent (ed) Yearbook of Intensive Care in Emergency Medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Germany, pp 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hetland G, Eskeand T (1986) Formation of the functional alternative pathway for complement by a human monocytes in vitro as demonstrated by agarose beads. Scand J Immunol 23: 301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Standley K, Luzio P (1988) A family of killer proteins. Nature 334:475–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cooper NR (1985) The classical complement pathway: activation and regulation of the first complement component. Adv Immunol 37:151–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dinarello CA, Wolff SM (1993) The role of interleukin-1 in disease. N Engl J Med 328: 106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vassali P (1982) The pathophysiology of tumor necrosis factors. Annu Rev Immunol 10: 411–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taga T, Kishimoto T (1993) Cytokine receptors and signal transduction. FASEB J 7: 3387–3396Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bazzoni F, Beutler B (1996) The tumor necrosis factor ligands and receptor families. N Engl J Med 334:1717–1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rock CS, Coyle SM, Keogh CV et al (1992) Influence of hypercortisolemia on the acutephase protein response to endotoxin in humans. Surgery 112:467–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen S, Tyrrell DAJ, Smith AP (1991) Psychological stress in susceptibility to the common cold. N Engl J Med 325:606–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Opal SM, Cross AS, Jhung J et al (1996) Potential hazards of combination immunotherapy in the treatment of experimental sepsis. J Infect Dis 173:1415–1421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vonboehmer H, Kisielow P (1993) Lymphocyte lineage commitment: instruction vs selection. Cell 73:207–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salgame P, Abrams JS, Clyberger C et al (1991) Differing lymphokine profiles: a functional subset of humans CD4 and CD8 T cell clones. Science 254:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Erard F, Wild MT, Garcia-Sanz JA et al (1993) Switch of CD8 T cells to noncytolytic CD8—CD4—cells that make TH2 cytokines and help B cells. Science 260:1802–1805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vannier E, Miller LC, Dinarello CA (1992) Coordinated anti-inflammatory effects of interleukin-4; interleukin-4 suppresses interleukin-1 production but up regulates gene expression and synthesis of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 4076–4080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Essner R, Rhoades K, McBrid WH et al (1989) Interleukin-4-downregulates IL1 and TNF gene expression in human monocytes. J Immunol 142:3857–3861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dewaal Malefyt R, Abrams J, Bennett B (1991) Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of interleukin-10 produced by monocytes. J Exp Med 174:1209–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Howard M, O’Garra A (1992) Biological properties of interleukin-10. Immunol Today 13: 198–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zurawski SM, Vega F, Huyghe B et al (1993) Receptors for interleukin-13 and interleukin-4 are complex and share a novel component that functions in signal transduction. Emob J 12: 2663–2670Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Romagnani S (1992) Induction of TH and TH2 responses: a key role of the “natural” immune response. Immunol Today 13:379–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelvin DJ, Michiel DF, Johnston JA et al (1993) Chemokines and serpentines: the molecular biology of chemokine receptors. J Leuk Biol 54:604–612Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sherry B, Cerami A (1991) Small cytokine super family. Curr Opinion Immunol 3:56–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oppenheim JJ, Zachariae COC, Mukaida M et al (1991) Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene “intercrine” cytokine family. Annu Rev Immunol 9:617–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Danforth JM, Striater RM, Kulkel SL et al (1995) Macrophage inhibitory protein-1 Alpha expression in vivo and in vitro: the role of lipoteichoic acid. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 74:77–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davatelis J, Wolpe SD, Sherry B et al (1989) Macrophage inhibitory protein-la prostaglandin-independent endogenous pyrogen. Science 243:1066–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chantry D, Turner M, Abney E et al (1989) Modulation of cytokine production by transforming growth factor-beta. J Immunol 142:4295–4302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sporn MB, Roberts A, Wakefield LM et al (1986) Transforming growth factor-beta-biological function and chemical structure. Science 233:532–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trinchieri G (1994) Interleukin-12: A cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells with immunoregulatory functions in the generation of T-helper cells type 1 and cytotoxic lymphocytes. Blood 84:4008–4027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolf SF, Temple PA, Kobayashi M et al (1991) The cloning of cDNA for natural killer cells stimulatory factor, a heterodimeric cytokine with multiple biological effects on T and natural killer cells. J Immunol 146:3074–3081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chehimi J, Trinchieri G (1994) Interleukin-12; a bridge between innate resistance and adoptive immunity with a role in infection and acquired immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol 14:149–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cleveland MG, Gorham JD, Murphy TL et al (1996) Lipoteichoic acid in preparations of gram-positive bacteria-induced interleukin-12 through a CD14-dependent pathway. Inf Immun 64:1906–1912Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Orange J, Salazar-Mather T, Opal SM et al (1995) Mechanism of interleukin-12 mediated toxicities during experimental viral infections: role of TNF and glucocorticoids. J Exp Med 181:901–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Endres S, Fuelle H-J, Sinha B et al (1991) Cyclic nucleotides differentially regulate the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta by human mononuclear cells. Immunology 72:56–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schindler R, Ghezzi P, Dinarello CA (1990) IL-1 induces IL-1. IV. IFN-gamma suppresses IL-1 but not lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of IL-1. J Immunol 144:2216–2219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stokker P, Camoglio L, vanDeventer SGH (1996) Cytokine gene polymorphism in infectious and inflammatory diseases. In: J-L Vincent (ed) Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shaw G, Kamen R (1986) A conserved AU sequence from the 3′ untranslated region of GMCSFmRNA mediated selective mRNA degradation. Cell 43:659–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Colotta F, Dower SK, Sims JE (1995) The type II “decoy” receptor: a novel regulatory pathway for interleukin-1. Immunol Today 15:562–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Arend WP (1991) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: a new member of the interleukin-1 family. J Clin Invest 88:1445–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Zee KJ, Kohno T, Fischer E et al (1992) Tumor necrosis factor soluble receptors circulate during experimental and clinical inflammation and can protect against excessive tumor necrosis factor in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:4845–4849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Garardin E, Loux-Lombard P, Grau GA et al (1992) Imbalance between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and soluble TNF receptor concentrations in severe meningococcemia. Immunology 76:20–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Opal

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations