Advertisement

Locoregional Anaesthesia in High Risk Patients

  • W. K. Ilias
Conference paper

Abstract

Although the introduction of ether for general anaesthesia did revolutionize surgical performance (W. Mortimer, Oct. 16th 1846), it has to be realized, however, that in the past uncontrollable serious side effects [1] limited its general application and doctors continuously looked out for alternate methods. It needed further 38 years until K. Koller (Sept. 11th 1884) successfully used topical cocaine for ophtalmie surgery and Halsted together with Hall used cocaine for regional block of the ulnar nerve (1884). The further development of local anaesthesia is strictly connected to personalities such as Cushing, Schleich [2], who invented injection techniques as well as special drug mixtures (Schleich II solution: 0.05 Cocaine, 0.01 Morphine ad 200 ml 7.5% NaCl solution), and Lennander who realized the importance and peculiarity of visceral nociception [3]. Special attention should be given to the fact, that Schleich’s solution II included morphine for local application, since he and his predecessors believed in the local analgesic effects of opioids, which has recently been proven [5]. Despite the introduction of epinephrine in local anaesthesia by Braun [4], which had, been successfully used to prolong cocaine induced local anaesthesia, the real big step to “local anaesthesia” did not take place, since also this additive was not sufficient to provide analgesia for longer lasting surgical procedures.

Keywords

Epidural Anaesthesia Interstitial Cystitis Ureteral Catheter Brachial Plexus Block Continuous Spinal Anaesthesia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dieffenbach JF (1985) Einwürfe gegen die Anwendung der Aetherdaempfe bei chirurgischen Eingriffen. In: Der Aether gegen den Schmerz. Ed JF Dieffenbach (Unveränderter Nachdruck d. 1847 in Berlin erschienenen Ausgabe) Akademische Druck und Verlagsanstalt Graz (Austria) 98Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fink RB (1980) History of local anesthesia. In: Neural blockade in clinical anesthesia and management of pain. Ed. Cousins MJ, Bridenbough PO, Lippincott Philadelphia Toronto, p 3Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lennander KG (1901) Über die Sensibilität der Bauchhöhle und über lokale und allgemeine Anaesthesia bei Bruch- und Bauchoperationen. Centralblatt für Chirurgie 8:209Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braun H (1903) Über den Einfluss der Vitalität der Gewebe auf die örtlichen und allgemeinen Giftwirkungen localanaesthesierender Mittel und über die Bedeutung des Adrenalins für die Localanaesthesie. Arch Klin Chir 69:541Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stein C (1993) Periphere Opioid Rezeptoeren und ihre Bedeutung für die postoperative Schmerztherapie. Der Schmerz 7:4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirschel HG (1911) Die Anaesthesierung des Plexus brachialis bei Operationen an der oberen Extremitaet. Münchner Med Wschr 58:497Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bezzant JL, Stephen RL, Petelenz TJ et al (1988) Painless cauterization of spider veins with the use of iontophoretic local anesthesia. J Am Acad Dermatol 19:86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maloney JM (1992) Local anesthesia obtained via iontophoresis as an aid to shave biopsy. Arch Dermatol 128:331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fontanella UA, Rossi CA, Stephen RL (1992) Iontophoretic local anesthesia for bladder dilatation in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. Br J Urol 69:662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirschel HG (1911) Die Anwendung der Lokalanaesthesie bei grösseren Operationen an Brust und Thorax (Mammacarcinom, Thorakoplastik). Münchener Med Wschr 58:497Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Finsterer H (1923) Die Methoden der Lokalanaesthesie in der Bauchchirurgie und ihre Erfolge. Urban & Schwarzenberg, WienGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolley EJ, Vandam LD (1959) Neurological sequelae of brachial plexus nerve block. Ann Surg 53:149Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moore DC, Bridenbough LD (1954) Pneumothorax its incidence following brachial plexus block analgesia. Anesthesiology 15:475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Otto CW, Wall CL (1976) Total spinal anesthesia: A rare complication of intrathoracic intercostal nerve block. Annals Thoracic Surg 22:289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ross S, Scarborough CD (1973) Total spinal anesthesia following brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology 39:458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edde RR, Deutsch S (1977) Cardiac arrest after interscalene brachial-plexus block. Anesth Analg 56:446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ilias W (1982) Axilläre Verfahren. Langenbecks Arch Chir 358:345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bier A (1899) Versuche über die Cocainisierung des Rückenmarkes. Dtsch Z Chir 51:822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dogliotti AM (1939) A new method of block anesthesia; segmental peridural spinal anesthesia. Am J Surg 20:107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lemmon WT (1940) A method of continuous spinal anaesthesia. Ann Surg 111:140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tuohy EB (1945) Continuous spinal anesthesia; a new method utilising a ureteral catheter. Surg Clin North Am 25:834Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tuohy EB (1945) The use of continuous spinal anesthesia-utilising the ureteral catheter technique. J Am Med Ass 128:262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ilias W (1994) Methoden und technische Hilfsmittel zur regionalen Leitungsanästhesie. In: Regionale Leitungsanästhesie. Ed Ilias W, Bibliomed Verlagsges, Wien, pp 17Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Penfield JA (1974) Laparoscopic sterilisation under local anesthesia. Am J Obst Gynaecol 119:733Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reiestad F, Stromskag KE (1986) Interpleural catheter in the management of postoperative pain a preliminary report. Reg Anesth 11:89Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swinhoe CF, Pereira NH (1994) Intrapleural analgesia in a child with a mediastinal tumour. Can J Anesth 41:427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bevacqua BK (1993) Continuous spinal anesthesia: Operative indications and clinical experience. Reg Anesth 18:394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Graziadei P, Winkelbauer H, Hoffmann ML et al (1992) The geriatric patient and anesthesia: A retrospective analysis of 898 patients of 75 and more years of age. Abstracts 10th World Cong Anesthesiol The Hague, p 67Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tonczar L, Schuch B, Ilias W et al (1981) Vergleichende Untersuchungen cerebraler Funktionen nach NLA und Regionalanästhesie geriatrischer Patienten. Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmed. 140 Bd 2:48Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bergeron P, Benichou H, Rudondy P et al (1991) Stroke prevention during carotid surgery in high risk patients (value of transcranial Doppler and local anesthesia). J Cardiovasc Surg Torino 32:713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Becquemin JP, Paris E, Valverde A et al (1991) Carotid surgery. Is regional anesthesia always adequate. J Cardiovasc Surg Torino 32:592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cantanna R, Morini M, Risuglia S et al (1991) Carotid thromarterectomy. Comparison of two anesthesiologic techniques. Minerva Anestesiol 57:149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ilias W, Lackner F, Spona J (1987) Kombinationsanästhesie: Rückenmarksnahe Regionalanästhesie. INA 61:64Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ilias W (1996) Opioids in regional anesthesia. Acta Anesth Scand [Suppl] to Vienna International Anesth Congress, in pressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. K. Ilias

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations