Guidelines on Antibiotic Combination in ICU Patients
Nosocomial infections are ubiquitous and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are probably the most important focus of nosocomial infections in a hospital . ICUs were described in 1971 by a hospital hygiene offiicer as the Mecca of microbes . Today this statement can be considered even more appropriate considering that, although only 5-10% of all hospitalized patients are treated in ICUs, they account for approximately 25% of all nosocomial infections, and that the incidence of nosocomial infections in ICUs is 5-10 times higher than that observed in general hospital wards . Moreover, ICUs are frequently reservoirs of highly resistant virulent microrganisms . Some major risk factors for infection in ICUs have been identified  and may explain this situation. In fact, the normal host defence mechanisms of critically ill patients are often impaired by the use of devices (i.e. intravascular devices, endotracheal tubes, urinary catheterization) that have to be discontinued as soon as possible in order to reduce the incidence of infections. Furthermore, the normally low pH of the stomach is often neutralized by H2-blockers or antiacids, promoting the growth of enteric microrganisms .
KeywordsNosocomial Infection Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Antibiotic Combination Infect Control Hosp Antimicrobial Combination
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