Kinematics and Dynamics of the Vehicle/Seat/Occupant System Regarding Whiplash Injuries

  • P. L. Ardoino
Conference paper


From accident analysis, it has been noticed that neck injuries are mostly caused by rear-end collisions. By way of example, we quote the following: In a Dutch study conducted in the 1980s [1], neck injuries made up 51.6% of all the lesions found in the drivers of cars involved in rear-end collisions (Table 1). In a Japanese study conducted at the beginning of the 1990s [2], the neck injury percentage in rear-end collisions increased to 80%.


Abbreviate Injury Scale Whiplash Injury Neck Injury Head Acceleration Extension Moment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. 1.
    Van Kampem LTB Hoofdsteunen in personenauto’s. Institute for Road Safety Research, SWOV, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koshiro Ono (1993) Influences of the physical parameters on the risk to neck injuries in low impact speed rear-end collisions. Proceedings of IRCOBI, ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (1990) Revision Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (USA)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Verband HUK (1994) Fahrzeugsicherheit 90. MunchenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. L. Ardoino
    • 1
  1. 1.FIAT Auto SpA, Direzione Tecnica, Coord. Tecn./Leg. SicurezzaOrbassano (TO)Italy

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