Vestibular Electrical Stimulation

  • A. Cesarani
  • D. Alpini
Conference paper


Peripheral proprioceptors of the muscles and the joints have a feedback control on the vestibular nuclei through spino-vestibular pathways. Neuromuscular spindles and Golgi receptors are dynamometers and they are particularly sensitive to variations in muscle length and tension. Joint receptors, Ruffini and Golgi bodies give information regarding the position of a joint and its movement. The portion of the neck including the first three vertebrae is particularly involved during the major part of everyday head movements. The paravertebral muscles of this region are very rich in proprioceptors. They are especially concentrated in the splenius capitis, the rectus capitis major, the longissimus capitis and the semispinalis capitis. These muscles comprise the deep plane of the nuchal muscles. The splenius is more superficial. The muscles act in the extension of homolateral bending and rotation of the head. During head movements they discharge to the vestibular nuclei [16, 17, 33].


Vestibular Nucleus Whiplash Injury Paravertebral Muscle Proprioceptive Input Postural Reflex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alpini D, Cesarani A, Barozzi S (1992) Non pharmacological treatment of acute vertigo. In: Claussen CF, Kirtane MV, Schneider D (eds). Diagnostic procedures and imaging techniques used in neurotology. Proceedings of the XVI NES Congress, Dr Werner Rudat & Co, Nachf ed, m+p, Hamburg, pp 337–340Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berthoz A, Llinas R (1974) Afferent neck projection to the cat cerebellar cortex. Exp Brain Res 20:385–401Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biguer B, Donaldson IML, Hein A, Jannerod M (1988) Neck muscle vibration modifies the representation of visula motion and direction in man. Brain 111:1405–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brink EE, Suzuki I, Timerick SJB, Wilson VJ (1985) Tonic neck reflex of the decerebrate cat: a role for propriospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 54:978–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boyle R, Pompeiano 0(1981) Convergence and interaction of neck and macular vestibular inputs on vestibulospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 45:852–866Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D, Barozzi S (1990) Electrical stimulation in the treatment of acute vertigo. In: Sacristan T, Alvarez-Vincent JJ, Bartual J, Antoli-Candela F (eds). Otorhinolaryngology, head & neck surgery. Proceedings of the XIV World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology, Madrid, 1989, Kugler & Ghedini Publ, Amsterdam, Berkeley, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D, Barozzi S (1990) Neck electrical stimulation in the treatment of labyrinth acute vertigo. Riv It EEG Neurof Cl 13(1): 55–61Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cesarani A, Pertoni T, Alpini D (1988) L’electrostimulation cervicale posteriore dans la rehabilitation des handicaps vestibulaires. XXII Reunion de la Societe d’Otoneurologie de Langue Francaise, Toulose, MayGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D, Barozzi S (1989) L’electrostimulation electrique dans la reeducation vestibulaire: indications, limites, perspectives. XXIII Reunion de la Societe d’Otoneurologie de Langue Francaise, Modena, JuneGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D (1991) New trends in rehabilitation treatment of vertigo and dizziness. In: Akyildiz N, Portmann M (eds). Vertigo and its treatment. Proceedings of International Symposium for Prof G Portmann’s Centenary, Ankara, 16–18 Maggio 1990, pp 90–104Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D, Barozzi S (1992) Superficial paravertebral electrical stimulation. A conservative treatment of vertigo and dizziness. In: Claussen CF, Kirtane MV, Schneider D (eds). Conservative versus surgical treatment of sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and nausea. Proceedings of the XVIII NES Congress, Dr Werner Rudat & Co, Nach. edi, m+p, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cesarani A, Alpini D, Barozzi S, Osio M (1993) Superficial paravertebral electrical stimulation (SPES) in the treatment of vertigo and disequilibrium disturbances. In: Dufour A (ed). Proceedings XXVII symposium Societe d’Oto-Neurologie de Langue Francaise Sanremo, p 47Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cesarani A (1994) The cervical electrostimulation. Neurootology Newsletter l(l):67–72Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corbin KB, Hinsey JC (1935) Intramedullary course of the dorsal root fibers of each of the first four cervical nerves. J Comp Meurol 63:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frederickson JM, Schwarz D, Kornhuber HH (1966) Convergence and interaction of vetsibular and deep somatic afferents upon neurons in the vestibular nuclei of the cat. Acta Otolaryngol, Stoch, 61:168–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fukuda T (1961) Studies on human dynamic postures from the viewpoint of postural reflexes. Acta Oto-Laryngol [Suppl 161]: 1–52Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ghez C (1991) Posture. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessel TM (eds). Principles of neural science. 3rd ed, Elsevier, New York, 596–607Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hagbart KE (1973) The effect of muscle vibration in normal man and in patients with motor disordersin. In: Desmedt JE (ed). New developments in electromyiography and clinical neurophysiology. Karger AG, Basel, 3:428–443Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hikosaka O, Maeda M (1973) Cervical effects on abducens motoneurons and their interaction with vestibulo-ocular reflex. Exp Brain Res 18:512–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Igarashi M, Alford BR, Watanabe T, Maxiam PM (1969) Role of the neck proprioceptors for the maintenance of dynamic bodily equilibrium in the squirrel momkey. Laryngoscope 79:1713–1727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karnath HO, Christ K, Hartjie W (1993) Decrease of contralateral neglect by neck muscle vibration and spatial orientation of the trunk midline. Brain 116:383–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kobayashi Y, Toshiaki, Kamio T (1988) The role of cervical inputs in compensation for unilateral labyrinthectomized patients. Adv Oto-Rhino-Laryng 42:185–189Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lackner JR (1988) Some proprioceptive influences on the perceptual representation of body shape and orientation. Brain 111:281–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lackner JR (1992) Multimodal and motor influences on orientatiom: implications for adapting to weightless and virtual environments. J Vest Res 2:307–322Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lindasy KW, Roberts TDM, Rosemberg JR (1976) Asymmetric tonic labyrinth refelexes and their interaction with neck reflexes in the decerebrate cat. J Physiol, London, 261:583–601Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    MacClosey DI (1973) Differences between the senses of movement and position shown by the effects of loading and vibration of muscles in man. Brain Research, Amsterdam, 61:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Manzoni D, Pompeiano O, Stampacchia G (1979) Tonic cervical influences on posture and reflex movements. Arch Ital Biol 117:81–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maeda M (1979) Neck influences on the vestibulo-ocular reflex arc and the vestibulo-cerebellum. Prog Brain Res 50:551–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mergner T, Anastasopoulos K, Becjer W, Deecke L (1981) Comparison of the modes of interaction of labyrinthine and neck afferents in the suprasylvian cortex and vestibular nuclei of the cat. Progress in oculomotor research, Fuchs and Becker (eds). Elsevier, 343–350Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Poumarat G (1993) Les electrostimulateurs. Cah Kinesither 164(6):3–13Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Raymond J, Sans A (1979) Projections somato-sensorielles dans les noyaux vestibulaires. Etude Electrphysiologique. J Physiol, Paris, 75:269–274Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Roll JP, Rol R (1991) From eye to foot: a proprioceptive chain involved in postural control. In: Cesarani A, Alpini D (eds). Diagnosi e trattamento dei disturbi dell’equilibrio nell’età evolutiva e involutiva. B e G Editori, Verona, 93–104Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tokinaze T, Murao M, Ogata T, Kondo T (1951) Electromyographic studies on tonic neck, lumbar, and labyrinthine reflexes in normal persons. Jap J Physiol 2:130–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilson VJ, Maeda M, Franck JI (1975) Input from neck afferent to the cat flocculus. Brain Res 89:133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cesarani
    • 1
  • D. Alpini
    • 2
  1. 1.Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Istituto di AudiologiaUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly
  2. 2.ENT, Otoneurological Service Scientific Institute S. Maria N.te, don GnocchiMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations